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56 Chemistry. 




Chapter I. 

The artificial formation of exhilarating- 
and intoxicating liquors has been prac- 
tised in most ages and nations. Wine, 
which is prepared from the juice of the 
grape, is mentioned in the earliest re- 
cords of history. The Tartar tribes, 
from time immemorial, manufactured 
their kumis from the milk of the mare 
and of the cow : the chiaca of the East 
Indies is the produce of rice : the Mexi- 
cans, before the arrival of the Spaniards, 
had different kinds of cheering liquors ; 
from the metl, or magnaiy a species of 
aloe {Agave Mexicand) ; from certain 
palms and from maize : and the Ger- 
mans, in the time of Tacitus, brewed 
zyihmn and curmi from barley, in the 
manner in which we make our Ale and 

All these preparations, and numerous 
others which we have not named, have 
certain properties in common. They 
constitute a genus, under the denomina- 
tion of Vinous Liquors, because that of 
the vine is pre-eminent. They all ac- 
quire their inebriating quality from a 
similar fermentation ; and all give out 
fluids by distillation, in which that qua- 
lity is concentrated in a far less bulk. 
These latter fluids are called, generally, 
Spirits, or Spirituous Liquors; and 
have the specific names. Brandy, Ariki, 
Arrack, Whisky, &c. each differmg from 
the others in flavour, according to the 
material from which it is drawn. They 
are all, however, convertible, by subse- 
quent distillation, into the same sort of 
liquid, which is termed Spirit of Wine, 
ox Alcohol. There are thus three stages 
or three processes: the fermentation 
which produces wine, beer, &c. ; the 
distillation of these fermented liquors, 
producing spirits ; and the distillation of 
spirit, producing alcohol. 

Although we were able, it is not our 
present business to describe the various 
processes by which vinous liquors may 
be prepared from different substances. 
What we here undertake is to treat of 
the Vinification of Barley ; and, when 
we shall have, occasionally, to speak of 
the fermentation of other vegetables, it 
will be solely for the purpose of eluci- 

dation. The comparison of Ale '\vith^ 
Wine will be frequent ; but for the 
particular processes, by which the lat- 
ter and its numerous imitations are pro- 
duced and preserved, we must refer to 
the Treatise on Wine-making. 

Though Brewing is certainly a che- 
mical art, it has hitherto derived little, 
if any, advantage from the science of 
chemistry. In fact, nothing is to be ex- 
pected from that quarter. Of all mate- 
rial substances, vegetables are the most 
difficult to analyze. Their immediate 
materials (as the results are termed) 
are often produced, rather than founds 
in the laboratory. The acids are con- 
nected by an invisible chain. The 
fecula, or starch, becomes gum, or su- 
gar, by almost imperceptible processes. 
The seeds of plants are endowed with a 
vegetable life, which is absolutely ne- 
cessary to vinous fermentation. A vivi- 
fying power shall exist when the grain 
is cut to atoms, which an unlucky twist 
of the mill might have utterly destroyed. 
Our chemists are men of the closet; and 
the manufacturer who operates on three 
hundred quarters of gram at a time can 
hope for little information from gene- 
ral theories, although upheld by the 
analyses of twenty barleycorns and their 
infusions in a quart bottle. 

While the art of Brewing has been so 
little indebted to the progress of chemi- 
cal knowledge, it has been considerably 
retarded by a power to which it had a 
right to look for assistance, — the Legis- 
lature of the country. The public 
Brewer, from whom only the art could 
receive improvement, is completely fet- 
tered by the laws of excise. The French 
Vigneron may flavour his wines at plea- 
sure ; and, by means of extraneous sub- 
stances, may prevent or cure their dege- 
nerations ; but malt, hops, water, and 
isinglass are the only materials of the 
British Brewer. Under whatever cir- 
cumstances, everything else is inexora- 
bly prohibited. There is no distinction 
between useful and poisonous ingre- 
dients : all are stigmatized as illegal ; 
and the penalty is the same for a single 
eggshell as for a pound of opium. 

In addition to these absurd prohibi- 
tions, the public brewer has to struggle 
under a direct impost, amounting, in 



most cases, to 50 per cent, on the first 
cost of his materials, and from which 
the private brewer is wholly free. The 
duties upon ale and beer brewed 
for sale, which were first imposed in 
1643, have been increased, from time 
to time, until they have reached their 
present enormous amount. We shall 
not stop to trace their progress, but we 
may remark that, at a certain period, in 
distinguishing between small beer and 
strong, all ale or beer, sold at or above 
ten shillings per barrel, was reckoned 
to be strong, and was, therefore, sub- 
jected to a higher duty. The cask which 
contained this strong beer was then first 
marked with an X, signifying ten ; and 
hence the present quack-like denomina- 
tions of XX (double X), and XXX (tre- 
ble X), which appear, unnecessarily, on 
the casks and in the accounts of the 
strong- ale brewers. A curious change 
of circumstances has rendered this letter 
still an appropriate mark in the books 
of excise. Ten shillings has no longer 
any relation to the selling pricey but it is 
now the duty per barrel. 

But it is not of the amount alone, but 
of the proportions in which the duty is 
levied, that the brewers, as well as their 
customers, have occasion to complain. 
Small beer is charged only at the rate 
of two shillings the barrel ; and by small 
beer is understood all ale or beer that is 
sold to the customer at, or under, the 
price of twenty-four shillings. All that 
is sold above this price is accounted 
strong, and is Hable to the ten shillings 
duty. The strength of the beer, which 
ought to be the criterion, is here out of 
the question ; for, if any gentleman were 
to go to his ale brewer, and say that he 
wanted an article better than small beer, 
for which he would pay eight or ten 
shillings more, the brewer could not 
furnish it, because, if he charged more 
than twenty-four shillings per barrel, he 
would have to pay the ten shillings duty , 
so that he could not give a better article 
for thirty-two shillings a barrel than for 
twenty-four. A cheap table ale is never- 
theless much in demand, and is often 
furnished at forty shillings, or less. The 
temptation to evade the strong ale duty 
is great, and, consequently, as appears 
from the numerous convictions, the 
mixing of strong beer with small beer is 
not uncommon. Were the duty, by some 
means, proportioned to the strength, 
this would seldom be done. But we 
should write a volume were we to detail 
all the frauds and inconveniences con^ 

sequent upon the absurdities of the pre- 
sent brewery laws. In small works, 
unless the brewer will consent to adopt 
the measures of those whose consciences 
are not too confined, he will seldom 
succeed in his business. 

It may be thought that we have dwelt 
too long on this subject, but we shall 
have frequent occasions to show that 
the laws of excise must undergo some 
change before the art of brewing can be 
much advanced, without involving the 
trade in total ruin. It is now preserved 
m consequence of the ignorance, or the 
indolence, of the servants in private 
families. The tax on public brewers is 
beyond all ordinary bounds. AVere a 
penny a quartern loaf levied upon the 
bakers, their ovens would soon be cold ; 
and yet we consent to pay twopence 
upon every pot of porter which we drink. 
In proof, the following is a statement of 
the expense at which any private gentle- 
man, who understands the manipula- 
tions, might brew porter of as good a 
quality as any that is usually sold in 
London : — 


1 Quarter of Malt, at 65*. perquar.r= 6-5 

3 Quarters of Barley, at 40s. per quar.= 120 

32 lbs. of Hops, at 112s. per cwt.= 32 

Colouring, either from patent Malt ) r 

or burnt Sugar . . j 

Cost of Materials 


To this there is nothing to add but 
the labour which, to those who keep 
men-servants, costs nothing. The grains 
and yeast may be considered as an in- 
demnification for the coals. If the 
brewing were properly managed, it would 
produce fifteen barrels of porter, of the 
average London strength, at a price 
under Jif teen shillings a barrel, or five 
farthings a pot. This calculation was 
made in 1827, and the value would, of 
course, vary with the alteration of prices, 
but the sketch here given is sufficient to 
prove that, under the present laws, were 
the art of brewing generally under- 
stood, the trade of a public brewer could 
exist only upon the earnings of the poor; 
for all who could muster a few pounds 
would brew for themselves. We have 
supposed raw grain, not so much on 
account of the saving of malt-duty as of 
its making a better beverage ; but even 
were the porter made wholly of malt 
the saving would be enormous. Thus : 

4 Quarters of Malt, at 65s. per quar.=:260 
32 lbs. of Hops, at 112s. per cwt. 32 
Colouring .... 5 


These materials would produce fifteen 
barrels of good porter, at less than 20*. 
per barrel, which is little more than three- 
halfpence the pot. 

Chapter II. 

Of Brewing Utensils. 

Although the names and general use 
of the principal brewing utensils are al- 
most universally known, yet a few re- 
marks, upon their construction, may be 
of advantage to those who have not had 
experience in their erection. 

$ 1. — Of Grinding Machines. 

Malt is prepared for the mash-tun in 
two different ways, — by crushing, or by 
grinding. In the former case the malt 
is made to pass between two cylindric 
rollers, close enough to burst the skin 
and bruise the kernel. This answers 
the purpose very well with regard to 
good malt ; but when we have occasion 
to make use of raw grain, or of grain 
that has not been sufficiently malted, 
there is a certain loss of materials which 
would be secured by grinding. The 
cause of this loss will appear afterwards, 
when we treat of the means of producing 
a saccharine extract. 

Grinding is best performed by mill- 
stones cut sharp for the purpose. Pri- 
vate families cannot generally afford 
the expense of mill-stones, which, be- 
sides, are not now erected, like the 
querns of our ancestors, so as to be 
turned by a man. In the neighbour- 
hood of corn-mills, the miller could do 
this duty ; but his multure is seldom 
determinate. A steel-mill is the best 
succedaneum. It may be had of any 
size, and, consequently, at various 
prices, from three to ten guineas ; and, 
we believe, there is no law to prevent a 
machine of this kind from serving a 
whole neighbourhood, unless it may be 
in special cases of thirlage. 

By whatever machine the barley, or 
malt, is ground, it ought to be cut sharp 
and small ; especially the former, which 
must on no account be powdered into 
dust, but cut into particles like sand or 
well-ground oatmeal ; and, for this pur- 
pose, if not already hard, it must be 
dried on a kiln. Those who use small 
quantities may purchase the barley in 
that state, but licensed brewers, be it 
remembered, must not use it at all. 
The malt needs not to be ground so fine. 
Neither should it be kept above a day 
or two in a ground state, because all 

sorts of meal are apt to heat by rea- 
son of a fermentation that would ter- 
minate in putridity. We have known 
it clotted so hard that it required to be 
broken by a mallet ; and the flavour, in 
consequence, was spoiled. 

§ 2.— Liquor and Wort Coppers y and 

Water, in the language of the brew- 
house, is termed Liquor; the cut (or 
bruised) malt, or grain, is Grist ; when 
put into the mash-tun it is called the 
Goods ; and the extract made from these 
goods, by infusion in hot liquor, is 
termed Wort. The liquor- copper, then, 
is a boiler chiefly used in heating 
water, for the purpose of infusing 
the goods in the mash-tun, or for sup- 
plying any part of the brewhouse where 
hot water is required ; and the wort- 
copper is that in which the worts are 
boiled, along with the hops, for the pur- 
pose of giving bitterness, flavour, and 
(as is generally believed) a preservative 
quality. In small works, and particu- 
larly in private families, one boiler is 
made to answer the double purpose of 
a liquor and a wort copper ; but this 
is done ahvays at some loss, and fre- 
quently at the risk of destruction to the 
whole brewing. When the first mash 
(or infusion) is ready to be drained, it 
must be drained into a vessel called an 
UNDERBACK, because the copper is not 
ready to receive it ; being employed in 
heating liquor for the second mash. 
The same happens in the third and 
fourth mashes, if there are so many ; 
and the wort, thus remaining so long in 
the underback, gradually becomes tepid, 
generally contracts a disagreeable fla- 
vour, and often turns into that peculiar 
state of acidity which the brewers de- 
signate by the denomination of blinked. 
This last evil, however, (which admits 
of no remedy) is sometimes occasioned 
by improper heats in the mash- tun ; 
but there the accident is more easily 
guarded against, because it never oc- 
curs unless the heat of the mashing 
liquor has either been too low, or has 
been allowed to stand too long upon 
the goods. If the last runnings of the 
mash be free from any tincture of 
acidity, and if they can then be imme- 
diately carried to the copper and sub- 
mitted to heat, the mishap of blinking 
will always be prevented ; and this, by 
the assistance of two coppers, can be 
readily accomplished. 

The expense of two coppers in place 


of one may be urged as an objection ; 
but the expense of one, on the ordinary 
construction, is often as much as both 
would be, if the coppersmith were pro- 
perly directed. Coppers are generally 
made of twice or thrice the weight that 
is necessary. The sides can scarcely 
be too thin, and the bottom, if it will 
bear the weight of a man to stand while 
cleaning it, is of quite sufficient thick- 
ness. It should in all cases be well 
hammered and raised inwards, like the 
bottom of a wine-bottle ; which not only 
strengthens it, but allows the worts to 
drain with more rapidity from the hops. 
In family coppers, the bottom can be 
scoured without any great pressure or 

Beside the saving in price, a thin- 
bottomed copper is much more easily 
heated, and less liable to wear, than a 
thick one. The inner surface of the 
bottom can never be hotter than the 
fluid which it contains : the outer sur- 
face is of course as hot as the flame 
which envelopes it. In a liquor copper, 
therefore, the inside can never exceed 
the heat of boiling water; and, if we 
could imagine a copper-bottom to be 
infinitely thin, the heat of the side next 
the fire would be absorbed, by passing 
through the copper as fast as it were 
generated. It is on this principle that 
water may be made to boil on a folded 
piece of writing-paper. On the other 
hand, when the^bottom of the boiler is 
thick, the outer surface is submitted to 
the heat of the fire some time before it 
communicates with the liquor within. 
The metal becomes oxidated, and comes 
off in scales, or, if the scales remain, 
they render it more impervious to the 
lieat, so as in some cases to take double 
the time of a thin bottom, before the 
liquor can be brought to the requisite 
heat. The difference of wear is an 
obvious consequence. We have our- 
selves made use of a twenty barrel 
liquor copper, which (the discharge 
cock included) did not weigh three hun- 
dred pounds, and we found it quite 
sound at the end of fifteen years, with- 
out having needed the slightest repair 
during all that period. The London 
allowance for a copper of that size 
would be eight or nine hundred weight. 

With respect to the size of brewing- 
coppers, the liquor and wort coppers 
should be alike, and the contents of 
each must be regulated by the sort of 
beer to be brewed. If small beer alone, 
with three mashes ^ the first mash would 

require from three to four barrels of hot 
liquor per quarter of malt, according to 
the quality ; and, as it is always con- 
venient to have more liquor than is 
needed for the mash, so as to get the 
second mash liquor ready in time, he 
who would brew small beer in this way, 
ought to have a copper which would 
contain five barrels of liquor for every 
quarter of malt that he intends to brew 
at a time. Were he to brew strong ale, 
with small beer in succession, or porter 
alone, a copper containing about three 
barrels for every quarter of the mash 
would be a sufficient size. We are 
aware that many public, as well as 
private brewers, contrive to manage 
with a single copper, by means of pan- 
covers and other clumsy shifts ; but our 
business is to teach the most convenient 
(which will always be found the most 
profitable) method of conducting the 

§ 3. — Of the Furnace. 
Although the construction of the fire- 
place and other building {settmg) of the 
copper is usually entrusted to the brick- 
layer, yet a well-going furnace is of such 
importance to the brewer, that we cannot 
pass over it in silence. In most manu- 
factories, an ill-l)uilt fireplace is merely 
the cause of additional destruction of 
fuel, and unnecessary delay ; but, in the 
brewery, the consequence is often more 
serious. If, for example, the second 
mashing liquor cannot be raised to the 
proper heat within a few minutes of a 
given time, the whole brewing of the day 
is in imminent danger of being lost. 
We shall, therefore, describe our method 
of setting a copper, the utility of which 
we have experienced for many years. 
It has the double advantage of being 
cheap, and, at the same time, equally 
applicable to coppers of any size. 

There are a few general remarks which 
apply to every plan of setting. The 
furnace-bars, or grating on which the 
fuel is burnt, should bear a fixed propor- 
tion to the lower surface of the copper 
on which the heat is expended ; but in 
this respect the artists do not materially 
differ. The same may be said of the 
height between the furnace-bars and the 
bottom of the vessel, which can scarcely 
be less than twelve, or more than 
eighteen, inches. The ash-pit should be 
as wide as the furnace-bars, and may 
descend as low as we please. Allowing 
the furnace-bars to be an inch and a 
half wide, and half an inch asunder, the 


air will be admitted, to supply the fire, 
through an area equal to one-fourth of 
the area of the fireplace. This air has 
to pass into the chimney, in an expanded 
form, accompanied with the smoke and 
vapour of the fuel, and in that state will 
occupy about double its former bulk. 
The chimney ought, therefore, to have 
a sectional area equal to half that of 
the fireplace ; and, if so, it will only be the 
want of height in the chimney that can 
prevent a proper draught. These things 
being premised, 

Let A B E C D (fig. 1 .) be a flat piece 
of masonry, or brickwork, level with the 
furnace bars G F, and raised from the 
floor to the height of the ash-pit, which 
is immediately below the bars, and 
where only the building is not solid. 
Draw the dotted circle G H I K, exactly 
equal in size to the bottom of the copper. 
Opposite to the middle of the furnace 
G F erect the prop I, and at H and K, 
two other props, raising all three to the 
height at which you mean to fix your 
boiler above that of the furnace-bars. 

Fig. 1. 

■ c 

Place the rim of the bottom of the copper 
upon these props, which, as proper sup- 
ports, must be built of fire-brick or of 
fire-stone. If the copper be very large, 
intermediate props maybe built (always 
in the dotted circle), so as to support it 
for a time, were one of them to give way. 
Let the surrounding part of the build- 
ing a, a, a, &c. be carried upwards, 
higher than the bottom of the copper, 
by ten, twelve, fifteen, or any number 
of inches at pleasure, leaving a vacuity 
b, b, b, &c. around the copper to the 
height thus fixed upon, when it is to be 
covered at top by means of bricks lean- 
ing from the wall a, a, a, &c.,' to the 

sides of the copper, the aperture not 
requiring a greater width at that height 
than the length of a brick : nor, indeed, 
in any place, need the aperture be more 
than from nine to twelve inches wide, 
unless the boiler be very large, in which 
case it may be covered by an arch. The 
prop 1, should be continued across this 
vacuity, and raised so as the flame, 
when it has reached the roof of the 
aperture, shall just have sufficient room 
to pass easily over on both sides, into 
the chimney c, d, e,f, as represented at 
fig. 3, in which the prop I is marked 
on a section by the same letter I. By 
keeping the entry to the chimney at this 


height, the whole exposed part of the 
copper will be wrapped in flame ; for it 
should always be kept in mind that the 
flame will rise as high and no higher 

than the opening by which it is allowed 
to enter the chimney. 

Fig. 2 is a vertical section on the 
same scale, with the copper in its place. 

The lower part of this copper, being in 
the form of a truncated cone, allows the 
bottom (literally so called) to be smaller, 
and consequently lighter, than if the 
vessel had been cylindrical ; while the 
flame, raiounting up the sides at a, a, 
gives the same heating power, as if the 
bottom had been of a diameter equal to 
the hue b c. After the circular vacuity 
is closed at b and c, the building round 
the copper (until again closed at the 
top) should be kept three or four inches 
from the sides, as represented at // ; and 
this thin zone of air will prevent the 
escape of the radiant heat, more effec- 
tually than would be done by two feet 
of solid masonry. The sides of the 
furnace are sloped to keep the fuel upon 
the bars, as in the lines de and fg. 
This section is presumed to be made at 
the inner end of the furnace, where the 
ash-hole h ends. The j)lace of the fur- 
nace door (which is cut off in front) is 
represented by the dotted rectangle d, f, 
i, k. The lighter shade I, seen behind this 
rectangle, is the prop 1 mentioned at 
ijig. 1.) The other two props H and K, 
are here also shown by the same letters. 
Fig, 3 is another section of the 
copper and its building, through the line 
E F on the plan fig. 1 . F is a section 
of the furnace ; I is a central section of 
the prop I so often mentioned ; and K 

is the prop K of fig. 1., the other 
prop being supposed to be cut away. 
The dark shade a is part of the open 
space which surrounds the lower part of 
the copper ; and 6 is a portion of the 
same open space, the rest being covered 
by the prop I, over which prop, and on 
both sides of it, the flame ascends to 6, 
entering the chimney cdefaic. The 
dark narrow spaces II, represent the 
same zone which was explained in 
/^. 2. 

It will be observed, that the discharge 
pipe, mn, has to pass through the 
flame ; it must, consequently, be a sim- 
ple copper tube, riveted to the boiler, 
and joined to the cock, 7?, by Sijiange at n. 
This will, however, in a twenty-barrel 
copper, save a hundred weight, at least, 
of lead, which the coppersmiths usually 
pour into a socket, when joining a cock 
to a boiler, and which is weighed to the 
purchaser as copper. To be sure, were 
it not for this base metal, as well as the 
excessive weight of the whole, the cop- 
persmith would be obliged to charge 
more per lb. for his labour. We do 
not mention these things as frauds, but 
as absurdities. 

It would be out of our way to dwell 
long upon the erection of furnaces, and, 
therefore, we have left many of the de- 
tails unnoticed. For our own part, we 

Fig. 3. 

have generally found ash-pit doors and 
upper dampers more troublesome than 
useful — especially the latter — which are 
seldom so tight as to prevent a stream 
of cold air from entering the chimney, 
and thus disturbing the draught. We 
must not, however, neglect to mention 
what we have found from experience to 
be a great improvement in furnace-doors. 
These are often extremely troublesome. 
By their warping when thin, and shaking 
the building Vvhen weighty, they are 
perpetual sources of vexation. The im- 
provement we allude to is cheap and 
simple, and by it we get immediate ac- 
cess to the furnace, without having to 
shove the coals through a passage two 
feet deep, which is made solely to keep 
the door steady on its hinges. The iron 
frame in front of the furnace is, in this 
case which we recommend, like that of 
the ordinary door-way, except that it is 
quite flat, (without any projection for 
latch or hinge,) and has a horizontal 
plate, about three inches broad, on a 
level with the bars, on which the sub- 
stitute for a door is to rest. This door 
is a square, or rectangular fire-brick, 
(what is termed a Welsh tile,) about 
two inches thick, and of sufficient size to 
cover the opening of the fire-place, and 
an inch or two more on each side and 
at top, as far as the front-plate will 
allow. This tile is surrounded by a well- 
fitted hoop of iron, which, by means of 
a screw on one side, presses the other 
sides together so as to keep the tile 
firm. On the middle of the upper side 

of the hoop is a staple, by which it is 
attached to a light iron chain, and the 
tile is so balanced, that when suspended 
the sides hang perpendicular. The chain 
is then passed over a pulley, so as the 
tile may drop directly before the fire- 
place, upon the plate above mentioned ; 
when a weight exactly counterbalancing 
the tile is attached to the other end, so 
that this door may be raised, or lowered, 
at pleasure, with a very slight effort. By 
means of two or more pulleys, the coun- 
tervailing weight may, like a bell-pull, 
be sent to any corner of the brew- 

Chapter III. 

Of Brewing Utensils {continued). 

§ \.— Of the Mash-Tun. 

Simple as it still is, the mash-tun of 
former times was yet simpler than now. 
It was a tub with a hole in its centre, 
which was plugged by means of a round 
shaft of wood that stood perpendicularly 
through the goods. When the mash 
was to be drawn off, this shaft, which 
was called the Tap-tree, was loosened 
(but not altogether pulled out) from the 
hole, which, being conical, allowed the 
worts to descend in a small stream into 
the underback ; and the filtration was 
assisted by a wisp of straw that had 
previously been wound about the tap- 

* We are indebted for our knowledge of this useful 
contrivance to the late Mr. Parkes, wiio has do- 
scribed it in his " Chemical Kssays, Vol. II.' 


tree, close to that part which acted as a 
pkig to the tun. It is hence that the 
brewers still use the phrases of setting- 
tap in the sense of beginning to let off 
the worts from the goods; and tap- 
spending, or tap-spent, to announce that 
the goods are draining, or drained. In- 
stead of this rude instrument, a false 
bottotn, pierced with holes, is univer- 
sally used ; and the liquor, which was 
formerly poured upon the top of the 
malt, is now, in most cases, carried 
down the inside of the mash-tun, by a 
trough, and made to enter between the 
two bottoms, whence, rising upwards 
through the holes of the false bottom, 
it forces its way among the goods, with 
which it is then intimately mixed by the 
mashing-machine, or with mashing- 

The size of the mash-tun must be 
regulated by the quantity of malt and 
the quality of the beer for which it is to 
be employed. From this may be calcu- 
lated the largest space that will require 
to be occupied by the goods and liquor 
of the mash ; after which, five or six 
inches additional depth miist be allowed, 
to leave room for the agitation when 
mashing. Tlie liquor between the bot- 
toms is not effective, and should, there- 
fore, be as little as possible, consistent 
with the prevention of the risk of 
choking, with any deposite that might 
fall from the goods. An inch between 
the bottoms will be quite sufficient ; in 
small areas, less. The holes of the false 
bottom should be burnt rather than 
bored, lest the pores of the wood should 
collapse with the hot liquor, which might 
put the first brewing in danger. To 
prevent this risk, by making wider holes, 
would be still worse : the holes should 
be conical ; the lower part from a quar- 
ter to three-eighths of an inch diameter ; 
but at the upper surface they ought not 
to exceed an eighth ; the bottom should 
fit the sides of the mash-tun, and its 
parts should meet so as not to leave a 

We must advertise the private brewer, 
that, if he brew with a mixture of 
raw grain, it may sometimes happen 
that the goods in the first mash will 
sink to the lower part of the mash-tun 
and leave the wort floating above, with- 
out being able to filtrate through the 
condensed mass. To prepare for this 
contingency, the upper part of the 
trough that passes down the inner cir- 
cumference of the tun and leads to the 
space between the bottoms, should be 

pierced with holes in the same manner 
as the false bottom. These holes, when 
not needed, may be shut by an interior 
trough, or by boards ; and, when there 
is occasion to let off the worts from the 
top of the mash, the interior trough, or 
boards, may be pushed downwards, a,nd 
the supernatant worts will pass through 
the holes, down the trunk, and, commu- 
nicating with the space between the bot- 
toms, may be drawn ofP in the same 
manner as if they had filtrated through 
the goods. With the second mash, this 
process will seldom, if ever, be neces- 
sary. In these observations we have 
supposed the mash-tun trough to be a 
close tube, but some give it only three 
sides, trusting to the inner surface of 
the tun (to which it is applied) for the 

§ 2.— Of Mashing Machines. 

Concerning mashing machines, we 
have very few observations to make. In 
large works they save much of human 
labour ; but we should imagine that, 
until the mash extends to twenty quar- 
ters, they produce very little saving, un- 
less under peculiar circumstances ; 
such as the advantage of a waterfall, 
where the power costs nothing. In 
small works, and in private families, it 
is wholly out of the question. Oars are 
there the cheapest and the best mash- 
ing instruments. 

§ 3.— Of the Hop-back. 

After the wort is sufficiently boiled, 
along with the hops, it has to be carried 
into the coolers. If an airy situation 
can be had for this purpose, below the 
level of the discharge -cock of the wort- 
copper, the wort may be run off into 
the cooling-backs, either by means of a 
pipe or an open shoot, and the hops se- 
parated by means of a drainer in a cor- 
ner of the first cooler, or back as it is 
termed by the excise ; but when they 
cannot be cooled except at a higher 
elevation, the worts must be carried 
thither, either by hand, or by means of a 
pump. This pump may be placed di- 
rectly into the copper ; but, in that case, 
if the hops be in a great proportion, 
they will need to be inclosed in a net to 
prevent any accident from the choking 
of the valves. The ordinary way is to 
empty the copper into a hop -back, either 
round or square, on the upper part of 
which is fixed a drainer, (a perforated 
smaller vessel,) to keep back the hops. 
The pump is placed in the hop-back, 


and from thence raises the wort to the 
coolers. This wort-pump must differ 
from the common suction pump, if we 
expect immediate action. The lower 
valve must be placed at, or near, the 
bottom of the back ; for that of the pis- 
ton rod must be immersed in the fluid, 
as long as it gives out steam, before the 
action of the pump will be free. The 
valves, too, should be of metal, to resist 
the heat. 

§ 4.-0/ the Coolers. 

It is of importance that the worts 
when drawn from the copper should be 
cooled, as speedily as possible, to that 
degree which fits them for the ferment- 
ing tun. This is more especially ne- 
cessary in summer, and, therefore, the 
cooling back should be placed in that 
quarter where there is the best succes- 
sion of fresh air ; and the worts, if it can 
at all be prevented, ought never to lie 
above two inches deep in the coolers. 
This should regulate their size. The 
word Coolers is used in the plural, be- 
cause two of these are indispensable 
when we make two kinds of beer from 
the same brewing ; and even in single 
Gyles, if we make a Return. The two 
latter terms will be afterwards ex- 
plained. One cooler ought to be placed 
so as to run into the other ; and this, 
when we have occasion to speak of it, 
we shall call i\\Q first cooler, — the other 
the second. Sometimes three, or even 
four coolers are used, but these are 
more for conveniency than necessity. 

Various contrivances have been pro- 
posed, and some of them adopted, for 
expediting the cooling of worts. That 
which is most commonly practised is 
the fanning machine, which is placed 
immediately above the cooler ; and by 
the rapid revolution of its horizontal 
boards, or arms, produces a whirlpool 
of air which assists the ascent and dis- 
persion of the steam. Whether or not 
this has any effect against the preser- 
vative quality of the beer, we are unable 
to determine. Reasoning a priori we 
should judge it to be unfavourable ; but 
we have no support from experience. 
The fanners are employed only in the 
summer season, when beer for keeping 
is never brewed. 

Another mode of cooling is to pass 
the worts through cold water, by means 
of a worm, in the manner of the distil- 
lers ; but in that case the water would 
need to be plentifully supplied. Be- 
sides, it must be taken immediately from 
the spring, for that which is exposed 

for only a short time to the atmosphere, 
acquires its temperature, and gives no 
advantage over that of spreading the 
wort, in thin sheets, to the open air. 
Further — and we wish our observation 
to be applied to every attempt at im- 
provement in his art — the public brewer 
ought to be very wary of introducing 
into his work any manipulation that is 
new. We knew a brewer whose situa- 
tion was peculiarly adapted for the cool- 
ing method of which we speak. He 
practised it successfully for years, under 
the daily surveillance of the excise. An- 
other superior officer at length came 
into the round. He found a clause, 
in an Act of Parliament, which made 
the process, in his view, illegal, although 
xiQ\ fraudulent. The brewer was pro- 
secuted in the Court of Exchequer. In- 
stead of compromising the fault, \i^ fool- 
ishly let it go to trial. He was acquitted, 
after his ingenuity had received an eulo- 
gium from the judges ;— but the Crown 
never pays expenses / 

The article Brewing, in the " Supple- 
ment to the Encyclopaedia Britannica," 
(which was written by Dr. Thomson), 
contains the following remarks on the 
subject of which we now treat :—" When 
the brewer is obliged to make ale in 
warm summer weather, it is material to 
reduce the temperature as low as pos- 
sible. In such cases, great advantage 
would attend cooling the worts in coolers 
without any roof, or covering whatever, 
but quite open to the sky ; because, in 
clear nights, the wort might be cooled, 
in this way, eight or ten degrees lower 
than the temperature ot the atmosphere. 
The reason is obvious. It is owing to 
the rays of heat which, in such a case, 
radiate from the wort, and are not re- 
turned again from the clear sky. Wort 
being a good radiator of heat, would be 
particularly benefited by this method of 
cooling." " A roof, perhaps, might be 
contrived, composed of very li2;ht mate- 
rials, which might be easily slid off, or 
which might turn upon a pivot." " We 
have Httle doubt that wort might easily 
be cooled down to the freezing point, if 
requisite, in our warmest summer wea- 

§ 5.— Of the Fermenting Tuns.' 
When the wort is considered as suffi- 
ciently cool, it is carried to the Ferment- 
ing Tuns, or the Fermenting Squares ; 
some brewers using circular and others 
rectangular vessels for that purpose. 
The circular are, in our opinion, de- 
cidedly the best. Having no corners, 



they are more easily kept clean ; and, 
in low fermentations, in the winter 
months, they are less liable to be chilled. 
The fermenting tuns are commonly 
termed Gyle-tuns, or Working tuna. 

The size of the sfyle-tun is regulated 
by the quantity of worts that have to 
be fermented within it at a time. It must, 
however, hold more than that quantity, 
to keep room for the head of yeast 
which rises during the progress. This 
head, if the vessel be cylindrical, is in 
proportion to the depth of the worts, 
without regard to the diameter of the 
tun. In certain modes of fermentation 
it may rise to a third, or even half of 
that depth. The number of tuns will 
depend on the more or less rapid suc- 
cession of the brewings, and the time 
that they are suffered to remain before 

There are differing opinions with re- 
spect to using open or shut tuns, in the 
process of fermentation. Patents have 
been granted for particular applications 
of the latter mode, both in France and 
in this country, but of this we shall treat 
more appropriately when we have to 
investigate the nature and result of the 
operation in the gyle-tun. 

§ 6. — Of cleansing Casks, Stillions, and 
Store Vats, 

When the beer has received its as- 
signed portion of fermentation in the 
tun, it is cleansed, that is, drawn off 
into other vessels. These are usually 
barrels, or other casks of a similar shape, 
in which the fermentation is finished by 
causing the yeast to be discharged from 
the bung- holes into tubs, or stillions, 
over which the barrels are placed. In 
order to keep up this purgation until all 
the yeast is wrought off, the casks are 
filled up, from time to time, with other 
beer. Some brewers take another mode, 
and finish the purgation in the tuns, by 
skimming off the yeast as it rises, after 
the fermentation has become languid. 
The comparative advantage of these 
modes will come again under our con- 
sideration. In porter - breweries, the 
beer, when it has ceased working, is 
usually turned into large close tuns 
termed Store- vats, in which it is mixed 
up with different brewings to suit the 
taste of the customers. Ale brewers, on 
the contrary, seldom rack their ale, but 
send it out in the casks where it re- 
ceived its final purgation. These prac- 
tices, however, are in neither case uni- 
versal. The reasons that determine 
these and other methods of cellarage. 

in the minds of the several brewers, will 
afterwards appear. 

§ 7. — Of the Arrangement of the Plant. 

The general disposition of the fixed 
utensils (or pla?it) of a brewery must 
vary so much with the situation and 
extent of the building, that we can only 
give a general outline of the objects to 
be kept in view: leaving it to be filled up 
by the judgment of the engineer, or the 
ability of the proprietor. 

If water cannot be had from a source 
sufficiently high, it should be raised to a 
liquor-back in quantity equal at least to 
one day's consumption, and high enough 
to command the whole work. Pipes, 
from this liquor-back, should be carried 
to every part of the brewery where Ihey 
may be requisite. The liquor-copper 
should be the next in elevation, and from 
it, too, pipes should be carried. Imme- 
diately under, and as near as possible to 
the liquor-copper, we would place the 
mash-tun with a roomy stage, and, on 
the same floor, or a little higher, the 
grinding machine — at least that part of 
it where the ground malt called ^m^ is 
given out. The mash tun should empty 
itself directly, by means of a pipe and 
cock, into the ivort-copper ; this again 
into the hop-back ; and the hop-back, by 
means of a pipe or shoot, into the fi>rst 
cooler. The first cooler should run, if 
required, into the second, and both 
should communicate with a horizontal 
pipe running in front, and as low as the 
bottom of the gyle-tuns, (for these should 
be all on a level,) and communicating 
with each gyle-tun by stopcocks. From 
this horizontal pipe another should be 
carried to a contiguous cellar, below 
ground, which, by the assistance of 
screw-cocks and leather pipes, might 
cleanse any of the tuns into the casks. 
How much of all this can, in any particular 
case, be accomplished, we have here no 
means of determining. The plan of 
fining the gyle-tuns at the bottom in- 
stead of the top is not usual, but the 
young brewer will find it very commo- 

We are aware that many of the 
remarks and recommendations which we 
have hitherto given, will be considered 
as impracticable by private gentlemen, 
for whose use, as well as that of the 
public brewer, these pages are intended ; 
but the accurate consideration of every 
subject has its use, and without this 
previous analysis we could scarcely hope 
to render the other parts of our work 
intelligible. The private brewer may 



have a more scanty store of utensils than 
those we have enumerated. They may 
even change their identity : his liquor- 
copper may become his wort-copper ; 
his mash- tun may ])e metamorphosed 
into a gyle-tun ; but he will understand 
what we mean, when we mention the 
diiferent names, and will recognize the 
actors in their changes of character and 

Chapter IV. 

Of Instruments. 

^ ]. — The Thermometer. 

Brewing is a philosophical art ; and 
has gained advantages from some of 
those instruments which philosophy has 
invented. Few, if any, of the arts de- 
pend so much on the regulation of heat ; 
and, notwithstanding, the introduction of 
the thermometer into the brewery was, 
we believe, not earlier than the middle 
of the last century. We are sure that 
then it was far from general ; and even 
now it is unknown to nine-tenths of the 
private brewers. We are not, however, 
to judge from this circumstance, that 
our ancestors could not make good beer. 
They did so, but by no fixed rule. The 
guess-work often succeeded ; and when, 
as was frequently the case, a brewing 
was blinked or otherwise spoiled, the 
blame was laid upon thunder, or upon 
witchcraft. Yet, even in those times, 
there were scientific brewers, who were 
able to do to-day what they did yester- 
day, though they could not communi- 
cate their knowledge. As is said of the 
blind, — the other senses became more 
acute from the want of artificial instru- 
ments ; and the taste, touch, hearing, 
smell, and sight, were more forcibly put 
in requisition. We know a public 
brewer, still in business, in a country 
town, whose scientific acquirements are 
of the lowest rank, who exposes only 
the bottom of his copper to the fire, 
keeping the sides unco vered and polished ; 
and who, nevertheless, fixes the heats 
of his mashing liquor, with surprising 
exactness, by the sound which his cop- 
pergives when beat with his knuckles. 
With all this, he has little or no musical 

'Ihe thermometer is applicable and 
useful in every stage of the brewing 
process. It ascertains the heat of the 
mashing liquor, and of the worts when 
draining from the mash-tun. In the 
coolers, it shows when the worts are 
ready to let down for fermentation ; 

and in the gyle-tun it marks the pro- 
gress, as far as it is notified by the 
increase or diminution of the heat. For 
the latter purpose there are tun-ther- 
moineters, from three to three and 
a-half feet long, which can be immersed 
in the worts, while all that is necessary 
of the scale overtops the froth of the 
head. An improved thermometer for 
the liquor-copper is still a desideratum. 
In high heats the steam covers the tube 
and obscures the mercury, so as easily 
to produce a mistake. We have often 
proposed, that a red glass bead should 
be introduced into the tube, which would 
swim on the top of the metallic fluid ; 
but we have never been able to find an 
artist who would undertake to produce 
such an instrument, though it would 
certainly procure a ready sale. Per- 
haps a slight portion of coloured glass- 
dust might be inserted, so as to answer 
the purpose. 

§ 2. — The Saccharometer. 

The principle and construction of the 
hydrometer (or areometer) have been 
already explained in our " Treatise on 
Hydrostatics." The saccharometer is 
nothing else but a hydrometer, whose 
scale is calculated so as to render it pe- 
culiarly fitted for measuring the specific 
gravities of worts, as compared with 
water. The infusion of malt is sweet, 
and without stopping to investigate 
whether or not that sweet substance 
(which is extracted from the malt and 
increases the weight of the water) is 
homogeneous with the sugar (Latin 
saccharum) of the cane, the infusion is 
termed saccharine ; the additional gra- 
vity which it exhibits beyond that of 
water is said to be caused by the saccha- 
rine matter, and is measured by the 

The first instrument under the name 
of a saccharometer was constructed, and 
sold to the trade in 1784, by Mr. John 
Richardson, then a brewer at Hull. 
Other saccharometers have since ap- 
peared with various claims to superi- 
ority ; but the fundamental principle of 
all is the same, and though Mr. Rich- 
ardson's instrument has been theoreti- 
cally, it has never been practically, im- 
proved. Extreme nicety is not necessary 
to the Brewer. What is wanted is a 
cheap instrument, which might be 
bought by private families; for we 
know of none at present that can be had 
under three guineas, except certain 
rudely-constructed glass ones, which 




have no pretensions to accuracy. We 
trust that we shall soon be able to sup- 
ply this deficiency. 

Mr. Richardson's saccharoraeter, if 
adapted to the imperial gallon, may be 
thus described : 

The part A (fig. 4) is a hollow ball of 
copper, having a flat brass stem c d, 
and a weight a of the same 
metal affixed by the foot- stalk 
g h. The weight a is regu- 
lated so as the instrument 
shall sink in distilled water of 
620 to the point b of the scale 
e b, which is divided into ten 
equal parts. A barrel (36 
gallons) of pure water at 62° 
heat, weighs 360 pounds 
avoirdupois ; and the instru- 
ment is so regulated that, if 
put into a liquid weighing 361 
pounds per barrel, it would 
rise to the mark e. Each of 
the divisions between e and 
b will then represent tenths 
of a pound. There are 
weights (having holes in ^^ 
their centres) marked 1, 2, ^'^^'^'^ 
3, 4, 5, 10, 20 and 30. These, respec- 
tively, represent pounds weight, and are 
put, as required, on the top of the stem, 
resting on the projection d. So, for 
example, if when putting on the weight 
marked 10, the instrument sinks in a 
wort to the point b, a barrel of that wort, 
at the heat above specified, w^ould weigh 
exactly ten pounds more than a barrel 
of pure water. If the instrument shall 
cut the surface at two of the divisions 
below the point b, in that case a barrel 
of the liquid would weigh 1 0.2 lb. more 
than a barrel of water — that is, 370.2 
pounds. The length of the instrument 
is about eight inches, to which the ball 
is proportioned, as in the figure. The 
worts are understood to be cooled down 
to a certain heat (in our description 62"), 
and an allowance is made at other heats, 
as directed, by a table which accom- 
panies the instrument. 

The water used by the Brewer is sel- 
dom or never pure, but is often a tenth, 
and sometimes a half of a pound 
weightier per barrel. This should be 
kept in mind in taking the gravities of 
the worts, or the instrument may be 
regulated to the water by shortening a /« ; 
the part g sliding into tlie socket^ ^. 

The common hydrometers, instead of 
proportioning the specifi.c gravities of 
fluids to 360 parts of water, as is here 
done, compare them with 1000 parts; 
as may be seen in the Table of Specific 

Gravities, given in the Treatise on Hy- 
drostatics. The principle, nevertheless, 
is the same. Sea-water, for example, 
in that table, is marked 1028, while dis- 
tilled water is 1000: that is, the same 
measure of the latter which would weigh 
1000 ounces, or pounds, would, if filled 
with sea-water, weigh 1028. If we wish 
to reduce the saccharometer indications 
to the proportion of a thousand, we have 
only to multiply them by 21, because 
1000 is 2^ times 360. Thus a wort 
which shows 9 lb. by the saccharometer 
is equal to 25 parts'of 1000, and in the 
table of gravities would be written 1025. 
But the Brewer never adds the weight 
of the water when speaking of his worts. 
A wort, the barrel of which weighs 370 
pounds, is merely called a ten pound 
wort, and in this way all his calculations 
are made. 

For the convenience of those who 
wish to compare specific gravities gene- 
rally, as they appear in philosophical 
works, we subjoin the following table. 
The figures of the left hand marginal 
column are understood to be pounds ; 
and those of Ihe upper horizontal line, 
tenths of a pound weight, per barrel, as 
indicated by the common saccharometer. 
The body of the table contains specific 
gravities, extending to tenths and cor- 
responding with the different weights, 
''water being reckoned 1000. An ex- 
ample or two will be sufficient to show 
the mode of consultation. 

Suppose we have a wort of 141b., 
and wish to know its specific gravity. 
In the left-hand margin we find 14 ; and 
next to that in the adjoining column 
marked at top by a cypher, there being 
no tenths, we find 1038,9, the specific 
gravity required. Again, let the sac- 
charometer-weight be 32.4 lb. Oppo- 
site to 32, in the margin, and in the 
same horizontal line, in the column 
headed .4, we have 1090, for the equi- 
valent specific gravity ; and thus that 
of any wort under 50 pounds weight 
may readily be found. 

The reverse of this comparison is 
equally easy. Thus, suppose we have 
a wort which shows a specific gravity of 
1109.5 by the common hydrometer; 
and we want to know how many pounds 
heavier a barrel of such worts is than 
a barrel of water : we seek, in the body 
of the table, for the nearest number to 
11 09.5, which we find to be 1 109.4. ^ This 
sura is in the column headed .4, in the 
horizontal line with the left-hand nvargin 
39 ; and therefore 39.4 is the weight 
sought for. 





















































































































































































1 04 1 . 7 







































































































106 7.8 














































































































































































nil .7 























































1 1 25 . 6 




















































§ 3. — Assay Jars. 
These are used for the purpose of hold- 
ing the worts which are to be weighed by 
the saccharometer. Their number is not 
hmited, and may be only one or half a 
dozen, if it be wished to keep samples of 
the several worts. They are cylindric 
vessels of common tinned iron, about 
eight inches long and two and a-half 
diameter, which size gives sufficient space 
to swim the saccharometer. They have 
each a small handle and a lid, as repre- 
sented in^g. 5. 

Fig, 5, 

§ 4. — Refrigerator. 

This is a very necessary article; for 
though the saccharometers are usually 
accompanied with tables of expansion to 
show the allowance for the heat above 
or below sixty degrees, yet the worts 
can never be properly weighed, on ac- 
count of the steam, until they are brought 
down to 90 at most. This refrigerator 
is so well described by Mr. Richardson, 
that we cannot do better than give it in 
his own words : — 

" This instrument may be made of 
tin, and being intended to contain no 
more than the quantity of an assay-jar 
full, its dimensions may be nine or ten 
inches deep, and its breadth seven inches 
one way, and half an inch the other, 
forming abroad and flat, or thin vessel, 
resembling a tin case, sometimes made 
use of for the preservation of deeds or 
other writings. (See/^. 6.) The rea- 

son of its being made thus thin is, 
that when charged with hot wort, and 
plunged into cold water, the effect of 
the cold may be almost instantaneous, 
which is nearly the case ; for the quan- 
tity of wort being less than a pint, and 
the surface brought into contact with the 
cold water (the intervention of the tin 
only excepted), containing about 140 
square inches, it may easily be conceived 
how rapidly the heat must be dissipated. 
" The upper part should have a 
lip a for the more conveniently pour- 
ing out the wort ; and on the oppo- 
site side should be a socket, to which 
a handle, b, should be soldered. The 
use of the socket is to receive a stick, 
of any convenient length, c, which 
is to fix in the socket by a pin, in the 
same manner as a bayonet is fixed ; by 
which means it may be fastened in, 
when the refrigerator is to be dipped 
Fig. 6. 


into the copper, and taken out, as an 
incumbrance, when it is charged with 
wort. It is to have two Hds, or covers, 
d and e, the rims of which are to slip 
within the edge of the vessel, as is re- 
commended for those of the assay-jars. 
One of the covers is to be perforated 
full of small holes, in order to admit the 
wort, and at the same time to prevent 
the hops from entering ; the other is to 
be whole, and is intended to supply the 
place of the first the moment it is taken 
out of the copper. 

" The length of the stick inserted in 
the socket is entirely to be determined 
by circumstances, it being intended only 
as the means of holding the refrigerator 
in the wort, till it is filled without endan- 
gering the hand from the steam. 

" It should have a .broad flat bottom, 
/, in order to enable it to stand upright, 
otherwise there would be a necessity of 
supporting it in that position."* 

Chapter V. 

Of Solutions and Mixtures, 

§ 1. — Of Solutions. 
"When a solid substance is dissolved 
in a liquid, the specific gravity of the 
compound is not increased by the whole 
weight of the solid dissolved. Part goes 
to the increase of bulk, and this increase 
differs with the nature of the bodies so 
united, in such a manner as not to be* 
included under any general law that has 
been hitherto discovered. There is a 
marked distinction between mechanical 
and chemical union. A substance, for 
example, which has the same specific 
gravity as water would be suspended in 
that fluid, and, if reduced to dust, might 
be thoroughly mixed ; but the mixture 
would be turbid, and the specific gravity 
of the water would remain the same. 
The suspended particles would increase 
the bulk exactly in proportion to the 
added weight. In chemical unions, how- 
ever, (although we are pretty ignorant 
of their cause,) it is otherwise. In the 
mixture of fluids we are uncertain, pre- 
vious to experiment, whether their vo- 
lume will be increased or diminished. 
In certain proportions of alcohol and 
water, the diminution of bulk is about 
three per cent., and, as might be ex- 
pected from theory, heat is produced. 
The solution, notwithstanding, remains 
transparent, without deposition. The 

* " Richardson's Philosophical Principles of the 
Science of Brewing." ll^S, 

alcohol and the #ateF%.are 
neither is decomposed. 

The manner in which the hofr lic^ijiM^ 
absorbs the substance, termed saccfia-- 
rine, from the malt, has not been suffi- 
ciently observed. It would appear, from 
a few circumstances which have been 
noted, that there exists a condensation 
during the absorption, and that caloric 
is evolved ; for the heat of the mash is 
often considerably above the mean of the 
ingredients. This, however, may be 
occasioned by the action of Saccharifica- 
tion, of which we shall afterwards have 
occasion to speak. 

However all these things may be, it is 
certain that the weight of the dry sub- 
stance extracted from the malt is much 
greater than that which is communi- 
cated to the specific gravity of the worts ; 
for, if we were to take a barrel of worts 
which weighed 380 pounds, that is, 
twenty pounds more than water (as 
might be shown either by the saccharo- 
meter or by actual weighing) ; and were 
we to evaporate the water at a low heat 
until nothing remained but a dry resi- 
duum, that residuum would probably be 
found to weigh about fifty -two pounds : 
at least, this is nearly the result of expe- 
riments that have been made. The 
specific gravity of this residuum is stated 
by Dr. Thomson to be 1.532; but, we 
beUeve, he was never able to procure it 
in a solid form. At any rate, as we 
shall have afterwards to speak of the 
nature of malt extracts, we shall take 
our illustration of the present subject 
from the solution of sugar. 

Pure sugar, dry and without vacui- 
ties, has a specific gravity of about 1.6, 
compared with water as unity ; that is, 
a gallon measure of this sugar would 
weigh sixteen pounds, while water weighs 
only ten. If, then, we put one gallon 
measure of this solid sugar into thirty- 
five gallons of water, we shall (setting 
aside concentration, if there be any) have 
thirty-six gallons, or a barrel, of a solu- 
tion, which will weigh sixteen pounds 
more than the water with which the 
sugar was mixed. If, instead of the 
gallon of sugar, we had put in another 
gallon of water to fill the barrel, we 
should then have added only ten pounds 
to the weight of the thirty- five gallons ; 
so that we have a barrel, of sugar wort, 
which weighs six pounds more than a 
barrel of water will do ; and these six 
pounds are all that are shown by the 
saccharometer. In the one case we 



35 gallons of water, at 10 lbs. per gallon 
And 1 gallon of solid sugar, at 16 lb. per gallon 

350 lb. 

Or 36 gallons of a solution weighing . . . 366 
In the other 36 gallons of water, weighing 360 

The difference of weight being 6 lbs. 

A barrel, therefore, of a fluid mixture 
of suf^ar and water, which weighs six 
pounds more than a barrel of wa- 
ter, contains sixteen pounds of pure 
sugar; and this proportion of six to 
sixteen is found to prevail, with little 
variation, whatever be the quantity of 
sugar dissolved, as long as the fluidity 
is preserved. Thus a wort of 14 pounds 
would contain nearly 37^ pounds of 
sugar; because 14 is to 37^ in the ratio 
of 6 to 16. 

When Mr. Richardson constructed 
his saccharometer, he was not aware of 
the distinction between the specific gra- 
vity of a wort and the quantity of sac- 
charum which it contained. He mistook 
the one for the other, and uniformly 
spoke of a barrel of wort of ten, twenty, 
or any other number of pounds, as con- 
taining the same number of pounds' 
weight of fermentable matter. Further, 
however, than this misnomer, his instru- 
ment was accurately as well as ingeni- 
ously contrived ; and we still consider it 
to be as well adapted to the brewery as 
any one that has succeeded it. Pounds 
and tenths of a pound per barrel are 

near enough for the purpose of the 
brewer, without having recourse to slid- 
ing rules, in the use of which he may 
be apt to err. Besides, this propor- 
tional specific gravity is accurately true 
and obvious to his understanding ; 
whereas the real amount of fermentajjle 
matter, the discovery of which depends 
upon experiments that he cannot verify, 
is in every case an approximation or 
guess-work, rather than a certainty. The 
following Table will, at all events, en- 
able him, if he wishes it, to turn his 
weights into real fermentable matter^ 
according to the average of the scales of 
the more recent saccharometers. The 
method of consultation is the same as 
in the Table of specific gravities at page 
13. The left-hand marginal column 
gives the pounds, and the upper hori- 
zontal fine the tenths of a pound of gra- 
vity per barrel; and the body of the 
Table, in the squares to which the side 
and top figures respectively point, con- 
tain the corresponding qualities of dry 
saccharine matter, which those gravities 
are supposed to indicate, expressed also 
in pounds and decimals of a pound. 



































































































































































35 . 03 






























































































































































































































































































































































































122.47 122,72 










124.99 125.24 125.50 




$ 2. — Mixture of Worts. 

The different extracts from malt, if 
properly taken, seem to be homogene- 
ous. Whatever be their gravity they 
unite readily with each other, as well as 
with water, in all proportions ; and the 
mixture is invariably a mean between 
two extracts with regard to speeitic 
gravity, and equal to both in quantity. 
This regularity in their union renders it 
an easy task for the brewer to increase, 
or diminish the gravity of his worts at 
pleasure ; and, as far as strength is 
concerned, to fix the value of his beer. 
We shall here give a few examples of 
the manner of making up strengths ; in 
order to save repetitions when we make 
our statements of different brewings : — 
When there is only one kind of beer 
made from the same goods (what is 
termed Entire Gyles) the mixture of 
worts requires no calculation. The 
strength is fixed by the union of the 
whole ; and if that strength be too small 
there is no remedy but to boil longer, 
or to be more careful when we mash 
for another brewing. If the strength 
of the whole be too great, they may be 
brought down by letting water into the 
wort-copper ; but this practice is clumsy, 
and wasteful : for something better might 
have been got from the goods by sprink- 
ling, if done before the chance of acidity. 
It is when two qualities of beer (such 
as strong and small) are made from the 
same brewing, that the mixing of the 
worts requires particular calculation. 
It is to be premised, in the outset, that 
the brewer must have tables of the con- 
tents of his coppers and working tuns 
for every inch of their depth, and of the 
coolers for every tenth of an inch. In 
public breweries these tables are all 
drawn up by the excise, in barrels, fir- 
kins, and gallons ; but it will be found 
more convenient by the brewer, if they 
are calculated in barrels and tenths, 
which is minute enough for the pur- 
pose which we have now in view to 

Suppose Barrels, lb. gravity. 

1st Wort 12 at 35 = 420 

2d Wort 14 at 20 = 280 

3d Wort 14 at 6 := 84 

40 at 19.6av. =-784 

Here we have forty barrels of wort, 
which, if all mixed, would average 
19.6 lbs. per barrel. This would be 
too weak for ale, and too strong for 
small beer. Let the worts, therefore, 

be mixed up in other proportions, such 
as the following: — 

Barrels, lb. gravity. 
1st Wort 12 at 35 = 420 
2d Wort 7 at 20 = 140 

Strong Ale 19 at 29.4 = 560 
There now remains of 

2d Wort 7 at 20 = 140 

3d Wort 14 at 6 = 84 

Making 21 at 10.6 = 422 

which would be saleable small beer. 
Should we wish it, we might improve 
the quality of both, in this, or some 
similar manner : — 

Barrels, lb, gravity. 
1st Wort 12 at 35 = 420 
2d Wort 2 at 20 = 40 

Strong Ale 14 at 32.8 

There remains of 

2d Wort 12 at 20 
3d Wort 14 at 6 




Being 26 at 12.4 

which is a good strength for small beer. 
Other combinations might be made 
according to the sort of article that is 
required. Some brewers, for instance, 
might divide their worts in the following 
way : — 

Barrels, lb. gravity. 
1st Wort 12 at 35 = 420 
2d Wort 14 at 20 = 280 

S iron g Ale 26 at 26.9 


and 3d Wort 14 at 6 = 84 

for small beer. The strong ale, at 
nearly 27 lbs. gravity per barrel, is of 
the usual strength at which the London 
brewers make their sixty shillings ale, 
but those in the country will probably 
be surprised at the mention of 6 lbs. 
small beer. Persons who wonder know 
nothing of the metropolis. This strength 
would make very fair workhouse beer — 
fully as good as the price can afford. 
The excise duty is two shillings, and 
we have, nevertheless, known contracts 
for supplying some of those establish- 
ments, to which the beer was driven 
for miles and delivered at six shillings a 
barrel I 

§ 3. — Of making up Lengths. 
The necessity of boiling a wort longer 
than is otherwise requisite, for the pur- 
pose of raising its gravity, should be 
always guarded against, and seldom 
happens with experienced brewers. 
These can regulate their mashes so as 



to ensure the intended quantity and 
strength ; but cases will occur, from 
various unforeseen circumstances, such 
as a mistake in the quality of the malt, 
where they must have recourse to a 
more than ordinary evaporation. In 
such cases, the saccharometer is the 
only guide. As an example, we shall 
suppose a brewing of porter, which, in 
London, is always made of an entire 
gyle, and, as nearly as possible, of the 
same strength. Let there be ten quar- 
ters of malt, from which the brewer ex- 
pects 80 lbs. per quarter :— Of the black 
(or patent) malt, we take no account. 
The gravity of our porter must not be 
under 21 lbs., if we would keep up the 
character of the house. We have al- 
ready cast the first and second worts, 
and the third is in the copper. A mash 
stands on the goods for a Return, but 
this can be of no service in the case 
before us : — We have, in the coolers, 

Barrels, lbs. Gravity. 
1st Wort 12.5 at 32.5 = 406.2 
2d Wort 13 at 20 = 260 

Making 25.5 in weight 


The third mash in the copper (allow- 
ing for the heat according to the Tables 
of Expansion which accompany the 
saccharometer) would, if cast now, 
amount to 1 6 barrels at 5 lbs. per bar- 
rel, being 80 lbs., the whole value of 
what remains in the copper. Adding 
this to the 666 lbs. already in the coolers, 
we find that the whole of the extract 
from the goods amounts only to 746 lbs. 
in place of the 800 lbs. which was ex- 
pected. These 746 lbs. must be divided 
into barrels of 21 lbs. each ; and, there- 
fore, dividing by 21, we find that the 
quotient (35.5) is the w'hole quantity 
(length the brewers call it) which can 
be produced from this gi/le. On looking 
back, we find that there are already 25^ 
of those barrels in the coolers ; so that 
what worts are in the copper must be 
boiled down until, when cold, they 
shall not measure more than ten. 
There are 80 lbs. weight in the copper, 
and when boiled to 10 barrels, the 
gravity will be 8 lbs., for the eva- 
poration is wholly aqueous. Suppose 
the operation finished, and we shall 
have — 

Barrels. lbs. gravity. 
1st Wort 12.5 at 32.5 = 406.2. 
2d Wort 13 at 20 = 260 

3d Wort 10 at 8 =80 

35.5 at 21 = 746.2 

In the preceding statement, we have 
mentioned a Return, without explaining 
the term. It was because we shall 
afterwards have to give directions on 
the subject. In the meantime we may 
state, generally, that it is a washing of 
the goods, which forms no part of the 
brewing of that day ; but is preserved, 
with what strength it possesses, to be 
used as mashing fiquor for the succeed- 
ing brewing. 

Chapter VI. 

Of the Materials of Ale and Beer. 

At the present time, ale and bee7\ 
according to the will of the brewer, ap- 
proach or recede from one another in 
their composition and consequent qua- 
lities, and are definable only in their 
extremes. We have reason to believe 
that our ancestors made a complete dis- 
tinction : that, with them, ale was the 
pure wine of the malt, and that beer was 
that wine mixed with hops, or other 
bitter ingredients. In the improved 
edition of the " Maison Rustique," 
which was published in 1616, under the 
care of the industrious Gervase Mark- 
ham, there are some useful remarks 
under the head of " Brew-house:^ 
Among many other things, he says that 
" the generall vse is by no means to 
put any hops into ale : making that the 
difference betwixt it and beere, that the 
one hath hops, the other none : but the 
wiser huswmes do find an error in that 
opinion, and say the vtter want of hops 
is the reason why ale lasteth so little a 
time, but either dyeth or soureth, and 
therefore they will to euery barrell of 
the best ale allow halfe a pound of good 

According to the present law, ale or 
beer, made for sale, must be composed 
entirely of malt and hops. Water is no 
doubt understood ; but the qualities of 
the various kinds of those ingredients 
are left undetermined. We shall say 
something of each. 

§ 1.— Of Water. 

Pure water, although not a simple 
substance, is invariably the same ; but 
it must be observed that the brewer 
never works with water that is pure : it 
is very unlikely that it would answer his 
purpose. If the saccharometer be made 
so as to sink to a certain point marked 
zero (a cypher) in distilled water, it will 
be found that every other liquor which 
C 2 



he can employ will show an infusion of 
something that marks, on his scale, a 
certain weight per barrel. What that 
something^ is he may not know ; but as 
it appears in certain springs to the ex- 
tent of a pound per barrel, it may, for 
aught he knows, have a material effect 
upon the result of his process. Farther, 
the prohibitions of the Legislature are 
hereby often put at defiance, or thrown 
into ridicule; for, while the Excise- 
officer shall be threatening, or prose- 
cuting, one brewer for putting a quarter 
of an ounce of sulphate of iron (cop- 
peras) into a barrel of his porter, another 
brewer, under the survey of the same 
officer, shall have ten times that quantity 
dissolved, naturally, in the water which 
supplies his brew-house. It is the same 
with carbonate of lime, common salt, 
and many other articles, which are 
strictly prohibited. 

The carbonates of lime, magnesia, and 
potash, are powerful correctors of 
acidity, that plague of the brewery ; but 
these are more frequent in well than in 
river water. The latter, especially that 
which comes from marshy grounds, is 
seldom to be chosen. The month of 
October, so famous from time imme- 
morial for the manufacture of English 
beer, is that in which river water is most 
generally unfitted for use. It is then 
loaded with vegetable decompositions, 
and living animalculae, neither of which 
are favourable to the vinous fermenta- 
tion. The choice of water, therefore, if 
he be fortunate enough to have a choice, 
is a matter for serious consideration. 
Any solution that would affect the 
flavour of the ale will show itself in the 
taste of the water, which is then to be 
avoided without troubling ourselves with 
the analysis ; but if there be nothing 
disagreeable either in taste, colour, or 
smell, and yet, notwithstanding, its spe- 
cific gravity be markedly superior to 
that of distilled water, it is well to know 
what substance, or substances, it con- 

There have been, in all times, a con- 
trariety of opinions among brewers con- 
cerning the adoption of hard or of soft 
•water. Hard water is a term derived 
from culinary operations. It is such 
water as does not dissolve soap, and 
which is also ill-fitted for the extraction 
of the virtues of tea. Soft water, on the 
contrary, has both these qualities. 
Hard water is chiefly drawn from pit- 
wells. That which is the hardest 
contains sulphate of lime, which, by a 

double decomposition, separates the ma- 
terials of the soap. With regard to its 
extractive power, this will probably de- 
pend upon the nature of the extract. 
In its appUcation to malt, we have nat 
discovered any deficiency in the quantity 
of produce. With regard to its effects 
on the beer, the sulphate of lime is not 
suspected to be in the slightest degree 
deleterious, and otherwise it is believed 
to be a preservative. 

Another species of hard water is 
caused by the admixture of carbonate 
of lime, which is held in solution by 
means of an extra portion of carbonic 
acid. This is, however, less hard 
than the former ; for it becomes soft by 
long boiling : the overplus carbonic acid 
is dissipated by the heat, and the pure 
carbonate of lime, being no longer solu- 
ble, is precipitated. It forms the incrus- 
tations that are so frequently seen on 
the insides of tea-kettles and other 
boilers. Whether this lime should be 
so precipitated before the liquor is used 
for mashing, has been much doubted 
by those brewers who have thought at 
all upon the subject. Lime is a favourite 
in the brewhouse. It is openly used, 
mixed with water, to preserve their 
wooden vessels from acidity, while 
they are unemployed in the summer 
months ; and it is often put, by stealth, 
in the form of marble dust, crabs' claws, 
egg shells, &c., into their spring-brewed 
ales, for the purpose of absorbing the 
first germs of the acid fermentation. 

§ 1.— Of Malt. 

The juice of the grape, the sugar- 
cane, and many other vegetable sub- 
stances, contain a great proportion of a 
sweet, or saccharine matter, ready 
formed ; but the farinse (or meal) of the 
common grains require to undergo some 
sort of operation before they become 
sweet. The process by which the grain 
acquires this taste, and which fits it for 
the use of the brewer, is termed malting. 
The barley, or other grain, becomes 
malt ; that is, it is mellowed, or sweet- 
ened, so as to taste something like what 
the Latins called mel, and w^e term 

The ordinary process of malting is 
that of vegetation. The grain is first 
steeped in water until it has imbibed the 
moisture to its centre, and then spread 
on a floor, and turned from time to time, 
in quantities of various depths, accord- 
ing to the state of vegetation, which 
immediately commences. At a certain 



stage of the 'growth, the grain (which 
has been gradually becoming sweet) 
has acquired its maximum of sacchari- 
jftcation. This, in barley, ordinarily 
occurs in two or three weeks, and is 
judged to take place at the moment 
when the acrospire, or rudiment of the 
future stalk, is ready to burst the shell. 
In other grain, the criterion is different ; 
but we are not now writing a treatise 
upon Malting, although such a work is 
certainly wanted. The malt having ar- 
rived at this stage, is dried on a kiln, at 
a low, or a high heat, according as it is 
wanted to be pale, amber, or brown. 
Pale malt may be, and usually is, dried 
upon a hair-cloth, spread over wooden 
spars ; but amber-coloured and brown 
malt require the floor of the kiln to be 
of iron-wire, or of perforated tiles. In 
either case, it is dried by means of the 
heated air passing through the malt and 
carrying the moisture along with it; 
and, therefore, when the empyreumatic 
flavour is guarded against, the fuel con- 
sists solely of coke, or other charcoal. 
In the case of amber, or brown malt, 
this care is not wanted, and hence the 
fire is made partially, if not wholly, of 
wood. The pyroligneous acid would 
thus pass through the malt ; and there 
was once a time when the flavour so 
conveyed was supposed to be necessary 
to porter, for which those sorts of malt 
were solely manufactured. At the pre- 
sent time, porter for ordinary consump- 
tion is made wholly from pale malt ; 
and a certain portion of Patent Malt 
(which is malt roasted like coffee, until it 
is black) is added for no other purpose 
but to produce the requisite colour. 

This conversion of the mealy part of 
the grain into a sweet substance, or 
saccharuin, and which has been called 
by some chemists the Saccharine fer- 
mentation, may be produced in a much 
more rapid manner than by the ordinary 
process of malting. If the grain be re- 
duced to meal, in the manner stated 
under the section '* Grinding Ma- 
chines^' and infused in water in the 
mash-tun (mixed up with a relatively 
small portion of ground malt) ; and if 
this infusion be kept for two or three 
hours, according to circumstances, at a 
heat of 150°, or nearly so, the whole 
mash will become saccharine : the fecula 
of the grain being as completely malted 
as if it had lain a fortnight on the malt- 
ing floor. The proportion of malt is in- 
troduced as a nidas to hasten this fer- 

mentation, on a similar principle as we 
put yeast into the worts which we would 
ferment into beer ; or a portion of the 
mother water when we would turn the 
beer, or ale, into vinegar. The particu- 
lars of this manipulation will be given 
when we speak of the process of saccha- 
rification, or of brewing from unmalted 

§ S.— Of Hops. 

The general opinion of brewers, as 
well as of the public, is, that hops were 
first used in beer for the purpose of pre- 
serving it from acidity. This we doubt. 
Bitter ingredients, of various kinds, 
were used by our forefathers, before 
hops were considered proper for the pur- 
pose ; and even the time is not very dis- 
tant when these were supposed to be 
poisonous, and on that account prohi- 
bited by the legislator. We believe that, 
long ago, ale was made from malt alone ; 
and that, when there was any fear for its 
preservation, a little honey was mixed 
with it, as is done at present in the 
South of France. The Herbalists, who 
were the leeches of those times, recom- 
mended certain plants as proper to be 
infused in the malt liquor, which was 
then termed herb ale : a denomination 
still known in various parts of the 
island. These herbs, like the medica- 
ments of our own days, were generally 
the bitterest and most nauseous that 
could be found ; but they cured diseases, 
and were, therefore, not only tolerated, 
but sought after ; and, in process of 
time, some of them became necessary 
to certain tastes, and exist in the beer, 
or porter, which we now drink. Wine 
itself, when prescribed by the physician, 
is often medicated, serving as a vehicle 
for the introduction of the extracts of 
wormwood, quassia, gentian, and other 
bitter plants which, before their prohi- 
bition, were common in the brewhouse. 

The culture of the hop is too well 
known to need any particular description 
in this place. There is only one species 
(Jiumulus lupulus); but it has many 
varieties, which are chosen by the cul- 
tivators according as they are supposed 
to be most suited to the cHmate and 
soil. The plant is dioecious, and it is 
the female catkin which is picked and 
preserved for the brewer. Hops are 
strongly narcotic ; but their bitter prin- 
ciple is the ostensible reason for their 
infusion in malt liquors. 

The finer-flavoured and light-coloured 



hops are pressed into sacks of compa- 
ratively fine cloth, called pockets, which 
weigh about a hundred weight and a 
half each, and are sold chiefly to the 
ale-brewer. The strong-flavoured and 
high-coloured hops are put into bags of 
a very coarse mat-kind oi texture, called 
bags, and contain, generally, double the 
weight of the pockets. These are used 
by porter and small-beer brewers. 

The bitter principle of hops is pro- 
bably the same in all its varieties and 
modes of cultivation; but,in conjunction 
with this bitter, there is always, in new 
hops, a communicable flavour, or rather 
aroma, by which their several qualities 
are distinguished. Ale-brewers talk 
much of this aroma, and speak of its 
being concentrated in the essential oil 
of the hop, without considering that it 
must be, in a great degree, evaporated 
during the boiling of the worts. This 
aroma, like all others, is extremely 
evanescent. One of the best modes of 
preserving hops is to bury them among 
the dry malt ; but, do what we will, the 
fine flavour does not exist a twelve- 
month. Beyond that time they become 
old hops; and are sold at a cheaper 
rate to the porter- brewer. A year or 
two longer, and the bitter ^Y^e//" disap- 
pears ; and the whole becomes nothing 
better than chaff. The same deteriora- 
tion takes place when infused in the 
beer. The flavour is but of momentary 
duration ; and the bitter principle gra- 
dually decays. In favour of those who 
believe that this bitter prevents acidity, 
it has been stated that the bitter is lost 
in proportion as the acidity is advanced. 
The loss of the one and the accession 
of the other are both, generally, the 
consequence of age; and it is well known 
that nothing is more easy than to mis- 
take a concomitant circumstance for a 
cause. Thirty years ago, when we were 
young in the observance of the brewery, 
we formed a theory, — that the bitter 
principle was a substance sui generis, 
which, (while it lasted) by some chemi- 
cal affinity, absorbed the acetous acid, 
gradually as it was formed. Subse- 
quent experience has given us reason 
to suspect that this hypothesis is a 

It is the ale-brewer only who seeks 
for peculiarity of flavour in his hops. 
It is he who discriminates with nicety 
on the produce of the several counties ; 
but his judgment varies with the taste 
of his customer. With respect to taste 

there is no criterion. It depends almost 
wholly on habit, otherwise we should 
find very few that could have a pleasure 
in chewing tobacco. The flavours of 
the different sorts of ale, however they 
are produced, are almost as various as 
the species of continental wines. The 
Burton, Wiltshire, Scotch, and London 
ales have little resemblance to one 
another, but each has its admirers. To 
be sure those varieties do not altogether 
depend upon the quality or quantity of 
the hops; but the infusion of this 
plant has always its share in the com- 

We believe that we cannot better 
conclude this section than by an ex- 
tract from Mr. Richardson's work, for- 
merly mentioned, which, though written 
thirty years ago, is not inappHcable to 
this present time: — 

" The difference of soil has certainly 
a considerable influence in producing 
the real difference in flavour observable 
in hops. Those which grow on the 
stiff clays of Nottinghamshire, and are 
thence termed North- clay hops, have 
the pre-eminence in rankness, and ac- 
cordingly, with a certain description of 
buyers, bear a higher price than Kent, 
though that is not so high as the gene- 
ral price of Farnham hops. To those 
who are not accustomed to the flavour 
of North-clay hops, they are undoubtedly 
rank, bordering on the nauseous, parti- 
cularly whilst the beer brewed from 
them is new ; and, indeed, that rank- 
ness generally remains a very consider- 
able time, if not concealed by an abun- 
dant extract of malt. Hence they ap- 
pear better adapted to strong-keeping 
beers, than to any other kind of malt- 

" Farnham hops, however deserving 
the reputation they bear, are by no 
means worth the difference in price 
generally given for them, to a brewer, 
except the vicinity of his residence may, 
in some measure, lessen that difference ; 
and it is not the intention of these pages 
to appreciate their value to the private 
consumer, with whom, perhaps, the 
idea of their incalculable excellence may 
have originated. 

" The county of Kent, though justly 
claiming pre-eminent distinction in the 
produce of its hops, considered as unit- 
ing flavour with strength, is far from 
being uniform in its general priority, in 
this respect ; for different parts produce 
different qualities, varying with the soil, 



or some other local circumstance, and 
all yielding the palm of superiority to 
those which s:row in the neighbourhood 
of Canterbury. 

" If, however, the rank austerity of 
the North-clay hops excites a nausea 
on^ the palate accustomed to the milder 
flavour of the Kentish, these, again, are 
as little relished by people who are in 
the habit of drinking ale in which Wor- 
cester hops only have been used. The 
flavour of these has a grateful mildness 
in it, not to be met with in any other 
hops. Hence the finest growths of 
Kent, in Lancashire, Cheshire, and 
some other counties, where the use of 
Worcester hops prevails, would be re- 
jected as unsaleable; and so great is 
the objection of some of the inhabitants 
of those counties to the flavour of Kent 
hops, that I have heard them distinguish 
ale bittered with the latter, by the name 
of Porter-ale. Indeed, the distinction 
has propriety in it, so far as the strength 
of a large portion of these may convey to 
some palates the idea of joon^r, and that 
the mildness of the former can hardly 
be applicable to any liquor but ale."" 

§ 4. — Of Isinglass. 

Although isinglass is not properly one 
of the materials of beer, being de- 
posited as soon as it has performed its 
office oi fining, yet, from its frequent 
employment and being the only ingre- 
dient that can be legally introduced 
into malt-liquor, we deem it not out of 
place in the present chapter. 

*' Fish-glue, as it is improperly called, 
is generally known by the name of Isin- 
glass, a word corrupted from the Dutch 
Hyzenhlas, an air-bladder, compounded 
of hyzen, to hoist, and bias, a bladder." 
" It is chiefly prepared in the vicinity of 
the Caspian and Black Seas, from the 
sounds, or swims, of different species of 
the acipenser, or sturgeon. These blad- 
ders, stript of their outer rind and dried, 
constitute the isinglass of commerce. 
The skins, tails, &c., of these and other 
fishes are used for the inferior sorts of 
isinglass, but in no case are the mate- 
rials boiled; for that would invariably 
convert them into glue, an article that 
has ditFerent qualities from those for 
which isinglass is required. Much of 
the latter, for instance, is used in making 
Finings, for the clarification of malt- 
liquors ; whereas glue, added to turbid 

beer, would increase both its muddiness 
and its tenacity."* 

In the brewery, isinglass is used solely 
a.s finings, that is, to clarify beer that is 
foul and muddy. In ale it is seldom 
necessary ; but in porter, as commonly 
brewed, it cannot be dispensed with. 
Those sorts which are termed long and 
sho?'t staple (made from the larger and 
smaller fish respectively) being com- 
posed of single membranes that run 
parallel to each other, and are sepa- 
rable by infusion in cold water, are less 
liable to putrefaction ; but the Book- 
isinglass, so called because it is folded 
somewhat in the shape of a book, is 
often found to be spoilt in its folds, from 
imperfect drying, which allows the ge- 
nerating of masfgots, and consequent 
putrefaction. These spoilt parts should 
be carefully thrown aside. 

The manufacture of isinglass was 
long exclusively confined to certain Rus- 
sian provinces. In 1763 a patent was 
granted to a Mr. Jackson, for the pre- 
paration of *' British isinglass," which 
was to be made from what he called 
" British materials" — but in reality from 
the entrails of sturgeons and other fish, 
imported from the American colonies, 
or caught on our own coasts. This un- 
dertaking was unsuccessful; for, in a 
well-written " Essay on British Isin- 
glass,"' which Mr. Jackson published in 
1765, he complains, that of 25 tons an- 
nually consumed in the brewery, he had 
only supplied a fourth, on account of 
certain prejudices that were raised 
against his article. These prejudices, 
however, no longer exist ; for many of 
the large breweries now make use of 
nothing but the dried skins of soles. 

Whatever sort of isinglass he era- 
ploys, the brewer prepares his finings 
in the same manner : 

It may be observed, that a pound of 
good isinglass will make about 12 gal- 
lons of the preparation. It may be used 
whole, but, for the sake of expedition, 
it is often bruised and pulled in pieces ; 
then being put into a tub, with as much 
common vinegar as will cover it (or the 
same quantity of beer of any kind, which 
has acquired a considerable degree of 
acidity) the isinglass will swell and dis- 
solve. As the whole thickens, there 
should be more beer added to it, and 
that of inferior acidity, because when 
the stronger acid has dissolved the isin- 

* Booth's Analytical Dictionary of the English 



glass, almost any beer will serve to dilute 
and prepare it. This solution should be 
frequently stirred about briskly with an 
old stump broom, which separates the 
undissolved parts and makes it all of one 
consistence, which, finally, should be 
that of thin treacle. This is to be 
whisked through a hair sieve, or 
squeezed through a coarse linen cloth, 
into another tub, previous to using it. 
The quantity to be used is from a pint 
to a quart per barrel, according to the 
degree of feculency in the beer. This 
should be made quite thin with some of 
the beer intended to be purified, whisk- 
ing it up till it froths. It is then to be 
poured into the cask, and stirred briskly 
about in it, bunging it down imme- 
diately, and the beer will become pure 
in about 24 hours, provided it has been 
in a condition proper to receive the 

An eligible mode of discovering whe- 
ther beer be in a proper state to yield 
to linings or not is the following : — 

" Draw off a little of the beer into a 
pint, or half- pint phial, and add to it 
about half a tea-spoonful of the finings. 
Shake it up, and then let it remain sta- 
tionary. If the finings will have the 
desired effect, you will observe, in a few 
minutes, the isinglass collecting the fecu- 
lencies of the beer into large fleecy 
masses, which will begin regularly to 
subside to the bottom. If the beer be 
not in a proper state, (which is ever the 
case as long as the fermentation conti- 
nues, or an after /re/ prevails,) the bulk 
of the finings will soon be at the bottom, 
leaving the beer neither pure nor foul, 
except just at the top, where there will 
be a little transparency, perhaps a 
quarter of an inch deep, which will 
grow deeper in time, but will not rea- 
dily extend to the whole." 

The mode in which isinglass acts 
upon the feculencies of beer has been 
variously estimated. The general idea 
is, that it spreads over the surface of the 
liquor, and then falling by its weight, 
carries down the foul parts, allowing 
the pure beer to ascend, as if strained 
through a sieve. On the contrary, it 
seems to us that its effect is owing to 
that indescribable cause termed chemi- 
cal attraction. The observations of Mr. 
Jackson, formerly mentioned, lead di- 
rectly to this result. According to him, 
isinglass is never perfectly dissolved in 
the acid liquor, otherwise it would cease 
to act Sisjlnings. These, however inti- 

mately mixed with any dissolvent, must 
always preserve a fibrous form ; for 
says he, " Any substance which appears 
horny, breaks short, or snaps like glue, 
although it dissolves like isinglass, and 
puts on the appearance of a rich thick 
jelly, the universal characteristic of good 
fining, yet will not fine down beer," 
The isinglass and the acid beer are then 
only mechanically, not chemically united. 
If the latter, they would become a species 
of glue; and such, finings will become, 
if exposed even to a very moderate de- 
gree of heat, perhaps at 90° or 100°. 
They should, therefore, be kept cool. 
" That common finings," says the same 
author, " is nothing more than a due 
division, or an imperfect solution of 
isinglass in subacid liquors, may be 
proved, by viewing it through magnify- 
ing glasses, or by admixing a few drops 
of fining with fair water in a glass, which 
being held up to the light, the fibres 
may be seen swimming in an infinite 
variety of forms and sizes, and, on sub- 
siding, arrange themselves according to 
their different gravities, the smallest 
particles of which, perceptible to the 
eye, attract each other, and form an 
appearance of little clouds. If then we 
take this mixture, and warm it at the 
fire, we shall presently find, that all 
these fibres will escape perception, in 
being perfectly dissolved, except a few 
gross parts. The same phenomena ap- 
pear, if we place a little fining near the 
fire, or hold a lump a few minutes in 
the palm of the hand ; thus the consti- 
tuencewill be broken, the fibres dissolved, 
and the efficacy destroyed" 

The rationale of the action of finings, 
according to the author just quoted, is 
this : — " it is evident that at the very 
instant that fining is commixed with 
beer to be clarified, the stale beer, in 
which the isinglass was dissolved, or 
divided, quits the fibres and unites with 
the body of the beer; while at the same 
time the fibres, now set loose, and every- 
where interspersed in the beer, attract 
and unite with the loose feculent parti- 
cles, which, before this union, being of the 
same specific gravity with the beer, could 
not possibly subside alone, but by this 
reciprocal attraction having obtained an 
additional weight, are now rendered pro- 
portionably heavier, and precipitate 
together of course, in form of the curdly 
magma just mentioned. But it some- 
times happens, from certain inadver- 
tencies in brewing, and mismanage- 



ment in the cellar afterwards, that beer 
turns out specifically heavier than the 
fibres of the isinglass ; in which case 
the fining cannot subside, for the rea- 
sons aforesaid, but floats at the surface : 
at other times, notwithstanding the 
union of the fibres and feculencies, the 
combined matter becoming exactly of 
the same weight as the beer, continues 
interspersed everywhere in it, and nei- 
ther emerges nor subsides ; in both 
instances the beer is nicknamed stub- 
born by the coopers." 

Chapter VII. 
Of Illegal Ingredients. 
Although water, malt, hops, and 
isinglass are the only niaterials which 
can be legally employed in the manu- 
facture of malt-hquors. brewed for sale, 
yet, as the prohibitory clause is but of 
modern date, and many other articles 
have been wont, from time immemorial, 
to be added to beer, which are not only 
innoxious, but occasionally advantage- 
ous, and are still left to the discretion of 
the private brewer, we have judged it 
proper to class them together in the pre- 
sent chapter. In doing so, we shall 
distribute those which have been most 
commonly used into five divisions : — 

1. Such ingredients as are intended 
to increase the quantity of sac- 
charine matter, or strength of the 
worts ; and, consequently, to save 

2. Such ingredients as are intended 
to increase the quantity of the bit- 
ter principle ; and, consequently, to 
save hops. 

3. Such ingredients as are intended 
to prevent the introduction of aci- 
dity ; or to diminish or destroy that 
acidity when it is already formed. 

4. Such ingredients as are intended 
to add an extraneous flavour to 
ale, or beer, so as to accommodate 
it to the taste of the inhabitants of 
any particular district, who have 
been accustomed to that flavour. 

5. Such ingredients as are intended 
solely for the purpose of increasing 
the intoxicating quality of ale, or 
beer, and which are, in almost all 
cases, of too poisonous a nature to 
be introduced with safety. 

On the principal articles in each of 
these divisions we shall make a few 
remarks, and then leave their introduc- 

tion, or rejection, to the judgment of the 
brewer: premising, in the outset, that 
various and very different flavours may 
be given, in the process of fermentation, 
to ale which is manufactured from malt 
and hops alone. 

§ 1. — Of Ingredients which are intended 
to increase the quantity of Saccharine 
Matter, or Strength of the Worts. 

Of all the substitutes for malt, raw 
grain is the principal — if, indeed, that 
can be called a substitute which is merely 
malted in the mash-tun in place of the 
floor. The process by which the con- 
version of barley, or other grain, into 
malt is thus rapidly performed will be 
detailed in a subsequent chapter. While 
we warn the public brewer of the legal 
danger of its adoption, we would strenu- 
ously recommend its use in private fami- 
lies. Were the practice to become gene- 
ral, a deduction of the duties on beer 
made for sale would inevitably follow. 

Pure sugar and water (it has been 
said) will not ferment ; but raw sugar, or 
- molasses, will make very good beer 
either alone, or mixed with malt-worts. 
There is, however, no saving from the 
use of these materials, unless when 
malt becomes much dearer than in ordi- 
nary years : in which case they are occa- 
sionally permitted to be used under the 
authority of the Lords of the Treasury. 
A weak beer from molasses is frequently 
made in private families, and drunk in a 
half-fermented state ; but it is too lus- 
cious for the taste of those who are ac- 
customed to the small beer of malt. 
Molasses, mixed with a weak malt- wort, 
would, when fermented, be much more 

Our ancestors, as well as other north- 
ern nations, were much accustomed to 
a vinous liquor from honey, which vied 
with the wines of the south : the methu 
of the Greeks, the medu of the Saxons, 
the hydromel of the Latins, and the 
mead, or metheglin, of more modern 
times. The extension of agriculture, 
which by diminishing the food of bees 
raised the price of honey, conjoined with 
the excise-duty imposed, has completely 
annihilated the manufacture of mead 
for sale, and even in private families it 
is now seldom or never to be seen. 
Honey, however, is still used in the 
private brewing of ale ; and in some 
districts it is clandestinely introduced 
by the public brewer. The design and 
effect of this introduction will be after- 



wards explained. Tt is almost unneces- 
sary to add that honey is not delete- 

Liquorice root, {Glycyrrhiza glabra,) 
both in powder and in the state of ex- 
tract (Spanish juice), was formerly an 
essential constituent of malt-liquors, and 
particularly of porter. We believe, how- 
ever, that the saving of malt was less 
considered in this article than its fla- 
vour. At all events the introduction in 
the copper of about half-a-pound per 
barrel, and that quantity was seldom 
exceeded, must have been perfectly 

§ 2. — Of Ingredients which are intended 
to increase the quantity of the bitter 
principle, and in consequence to save 
That hops prevent ale from becoming 
acid is, if true, a comparatively modern 
discovery. Mum, (a malt-liquor now 
unknown in England,) although directed 
to be kept two years before it was tapped, 
contained no species of bitter among its 
numerous ingredients ; and the beer of 
Louvain, so famous throughout France, 
is brewed without hops. It is well- 
known that bitter infusions themselves, 
without any other vegetable matter, will 
become sour. 

The use of bitters followed the advice 
of the physician, who, being anciently a 
herbahst, recommended the plants that 
grew in his garden. Each plant had its 
particular disease which it was able to 
combat; and hence the whole science 
of medical botany. According to those 
gentlemen, the bitter principle was, and 
still is, peculiarly efficacious. " It is a 
pure tonic, — increases the appetite, — 
promotes digestion, — gives vigour to the 
system, &cV' Unfortunately for this 
general eulogium, the bitters are either 
different in their essence, or they are 
never pure. A few, such as gentian 
and quassia, are, comparatively, inac- 
tive. Some, like aloes and marsh tre- 
foil, are purgative. Hops are astringent 
and narcotic ; broom and some others 
are diuretics: while many, as opium, 
cocculus indicus, ignatia amara, tobacco 
and nux vomica, are highly poisonous. 
Yet each of those here mentioned, and 
others which we have not named, have 
been boiled among the worts of beer, 
without regard to their effect on parti- 
cular constitutions, or to the general 
safety of the individuals for whom the 
liquor is brewed. 

These observations being premised, 
our account of the substitutes for hops 
may be short. Broom, wormwood, and 
several other bitters, are now almost 
universally laid aside ; for, since the 
flavour of the hops has been so gene- 
rally recognized, no bitter which is in- 
consistent with that flavour would be 
relished. Bitters that are perfectly, or 
at least nearly, flavourless may, indeed, 
be added to hops when the bitter princi- 
ple only is required ; and this is the case 
with porter, in which flavour is little 
studied: for the hops usually employed in 
brewing that beverage are either coarse, 
or old, and would not be admissible in 
fine ales. The cocculus indicus, so fre- 
quently introduced into the latter, has a 
taste by no means agreeable; but its 
intoxicating quality is all that is wanted 
by the brewer, and, could that be pro- 
cured (as has been attempted) in an 
isolated state, its flavour would be wil- 
lingly dispensed with. 

The bitter contained in porter is very 
great, and if taken wholly from hops, 
must require an average quantity of ten 
or twelve pounds to the quarter of malt, 
or about three pounds per barrel. The 
fluctuation in the price of that article is 
extreme, as will appear from the fol- 
lowing statement, which was printed in 
1819, by order of the House of Com- 
mons. The quality here mentioned is 
bag hops, which are the cheapest in the 

per cwt. 

1789 Oct. 

6/. 14*. 


71. 2*. 

1790 Oct. 



1791 Oct. 

5>l. bs. 

bl. 12*. 

1792 Oct. 



1793 Oct. 

9/. 9s. 

10/. 0*. 

1794 Oct. 



1795 Oct. 

bl. 0*. 

5/. 12*. 

1796 Oct. 



1797 Mar. 



1797 Oct. 



1798 Oct. 

9/. 9s. 


10/. 0*. 

1799 Nov. 

14^. 14j. 

1801 Jan. 

16A 5*. 

18/. 0*. 

1802 Jan. 

bl. bs. 

1803 July 

bl. 12*. 

1804 July 

Al. 15*. 

bl. 0*. 

1812 Nov. 

13/. 13*. 

15/. 5*. 

1813 Jan. 

13/. 13*. 


15/. 10*. 

1814 Dec. 

9/. 4*. 

9/. 9s. 

1815 Feb. 

8/. 16*. 

91. 9s. 

1816 July 

6/. 10*. 

61. ni. 

1816 Oct. 

14/. 14*. 

1817 Jan. 

14/. bs. 

1818 Jan. 

31/. 0*. 

It is not to be wondered at, that, 
under these circumstances, substitutes 



should have been sought for with avidity. 
If the substitutes were not more noxious 
than the principal, (and some of them 
were less so,) the conscience of the 
brewer was easily satisfied: especially 
seeing that he could procure as much 
bitter for sixpence as would otherwise 
have cost him a pound. 

Marsh trefoil, buchbean, or bogbean 
{Menyanthes trifoliata), has been em- 
ployed in place of hops, — openly on the 
continent, and privately, (at one time,) 
as has been said, in this country. The 
leaves were collected, when mature, and 
dried in the shade, to preserve their 
colour. They were then well boiled and 
scummed to free them from their excess 
of roughness ; and the remaining extract 
was preserved and put into the ferment- 
ing tun in such proportions as the 
brewer judged proper, or as his drug- 
gist chose to direct. These leaves have 
very nearly the flavour of the hop ; and 
an ounce of the former is said to be 
equivalent to half- a- pound of the latter. 
It should be observed, however, for the 
guidance of any one who shall dare to 
use them, that although they stand re- 
commended in the modern pharmaco- 
poeias, the quantity of a drachm taken 
in powder " purges and vomits." 

Aloes (the dried juice of the Aloe 
perfoliata) is a well known bitter, being 
much used in medicine. When it was 
allov\'ed to be sold to brewers, the variety 
succotrina was always preferred, as 
having the least objectionable smell. 
The quantity which could be mixed with 
the hops in the copper was limited, in 
consequence of its purgative quality, 
and seldom exceeded half an ounce to a 
barrel of porter. 

Quassia is another well-known bitter ; 
it is the favourite of the physician, and 
would be equally so of the porter-brewer, 
if he dared to use and acknowledge it. 
The smell, if any, is imperceptible, and 
the bitter is intense, pure, and lasting. 
The quassia amara (a shrub) is the 
most biting of the tribe ; but that com- 
monly imported into this country, from 
the West Indies, is the bark and wood 
of the root and trunk of the quassia 
excelsa, which is a large tree. When 
the porter-brewers made use of quassia, 
it was either in small chips or rasped, 
and put into the copper (with the hops) 
in a quantity of about an ounce to the 
barrel. This is, probably, the most 
harmless of all the illegal bitters. The 
physicians prescribe the decoction to 

their patients to the extent of a quarter 
of an ounce of the bark a day, — as much 
as the brewer was accustomed to put 
into nine gallons of his porter. 

There are other bitter ingredients 
worth noticing ; but as they are intended 
for purposes different from the saving 
of hops, they belong more properly to 
the succeeding divisions of this chapter. 

§ 3. — Of Ingredients which are intended 
to prevent the introduction of acidity^ 
or to diminish or destroy that acidity 
when it is already formed. 
It would not be difficult to account 
for the action of the greater number of 
the ingredients of this description, upon 
the principles of modern chemistry. 
Nevertheless, it is certain that all those 
articles were in use, for the same purpose, 
centuries before the present theories of 
acetification had existence. Practice 
always precedes theory. The latter 
merely strings together the facts that 
have been previously (often accidentally) 
discovered. It was known, from time 
immemorial, that ale, or beer, when 
exposed to the atmosphere, especially 
in summer, became rapidly sour ; and 
hence the closeness of the casks, and 
the coolness of the cellars, were as much 
attended to in former as in latter times. 
It was also known that certain salts, 
(as they were called,) and certain earths, 
were preventives if not remedies : in 
short, we know little or nothing that is 
new upon the subject. 

Common salt, so useful in preventing 
the putrefaction of animal substances, 
was also believed to have a similar ettect 
in the preservation of vegetables ; and, 
accordingly, we find the condemnation 
of its use among the earliest restrictive 
laws of the brewery. Different opinions 
exist with respect to its utility ; but, 
however these may be decided, it can 
scarcely be suspected to be dangerous. 
Publicans have been accused of putting 
it in the beer to produce thirst ; and we 
have known private gentlemen, who 
prided themselves on the quality of their 
home-brewed, throw in about a pound 
per barrel into the casks with the view 
of flavour. Many brewers mix salt with 
wheat or bean flour, putting a handful 
in each cask before cleansing, to pro- 
mote the discharge of the yeast ; and, 
occasionally, the same mixture of flour 
and salt, or flour and saltpetre, or salt 
prunella, is introduced into the tun to 
rouse a languid fermentation. 



That the fermentation should not 
linger between a nauseous sweet and a 
vinous flavour, is reckoned essential to 
the prevention of acidity. The extent to 
which it should be carried will be con- 
sidered hereafter, but we now speak of 
such ingredients as are supposed to 
excite the working when it is too lan- 
guid. Jalap, to the extent of two, or 
even three ounces, to twenty barrels, is 
employed by certain brewers in the gyle- 
tun, but the rationale of its action is to 
us unknown. 

The formation of vinegar, like other 
fermentations, proceeds more rapidly 
when it has a nidus or incipient acidity 
from which to begin. In the aerial 
theory, that nidus is oxygen; and to 
destroy or counteract this oxygen in 
the outset is to strangle the demon in 
the moment of its birth. 

When the fermentation is finished in 
a proper manner, it remains with the 
brewer to keep the casks, if possible, 
hermetically sealed, to prevent the ad- 
mission of the external air. Bottles are 
still better than casks. When laid on 
their sides, so as to keep the corks 
swelled, nothing can enter from without; 
and the sole danger is, when the liquor 
retains so much of undecomposed sac- 
charine matter as to cause the bursting 
of the vessel from a new fermentation. 
It is on this account that beer, when it 
is to be bottled, is usually exposed for 
a time to the atmosphere, by loosening 
the bung, in order \o flatten it ; that is, 
to facilitate the escape of the carbonic 
acid which it then contains. During 
this exposure, while the fixed air escapes, 
a portion of the atmospheric air may 
enter ; and with the view of preventing 
this, it is the practice of some, who 
affect the mysteries of the trade, to pour 
about two ounces of the spirit of 31a- 
ranta into the cask, which is then al- 
lowed to stand, without the bung, for 
three or four days before bottling. How 
this can exclude one gas and allow 
another to escape, we know not, having 
never personally made the experiment. 
This fiery liquid is a spirituous extract 
of the medicinal root Galangal : —the 
Koempferia galanga, Alpinia galanga, 
Amomwn galanga, and Maranta ga- 
langa, of different botanists. 

The exclusion of the atmospheric air, 
by covering the surface of the liquid, 
has been managed in different ways. 
The small wine, when carried out to 
the Italian vintagers, is in weak flasks, 

which would not bear the pressure of a 
cork. These have long necks, and the 
surface of the liquor is covered with a 
film of olive oil, which swims on the 
fluid, and is easily separated afterwards 
by means of a little cotton. The hand- 
ful of half-boiled hops, impregnated 
with wort, which is usually put into the 
bunghole of each cask by the ale-brewer 
when stowing it in his cellar, answers 
the same purpose : and some, more ri- 
gidly attentive, insert (privately) at the 
same time, about an ounce of powdered 
black rosin, previously mixed with beer, 
which swims on the surface, but after a 
time is partially absorbed. Of this we 
shall have again to speak when we treat 
of Burton ale. 

Bruised green Copperas, called also 
salt of steel, (sulphate of iron) which 
has always been put into porter — for- 
merly by the brewer and now by the pub- 
lican — is, ostensibly, for the purpose of 
giving it B, frothy top. It is either used 
alone, or mixed with alum, and is tech- 
nically called heading. The quantity 
used need not exceed as much as would 
lie on a half-crown piece for a barrel, 
and to that extent there is no danger to 
be feared. This practice, we believe, 
had been originally intended to keep the 
beer alive during the time in which it 
remained in the pots. The green sul- 
phate of iron is greedy of oxygen, and 
is thereby speedily converted into the 
brown. We apprehend that it is in con- 
sequence of this dissolved salt of iron, 
that certain porter- drinkers have uni- 
formly asserted that there is a peculiar 
flavour when drinking out of a tin pot, 
which does not exist when taken from a 
glass : if this be true, the effect will na- 
turally be referred to galvanic influence. 
The brewers, in one quarter of the 
island, are in the practice of putting sul- 
phate of iron (previously dried to white- 
ness) in the liquor of their first mash. 
This is probably meant to guard against 
•that species of acetification termed 
blinking ; but its effect must be little, 
since the quantity is limited to about 
two ounces for twenty barrels of liquor. 
Some ingredients are introduced which 
lie dormant or deposited in the cask, 
for the purpose of catching and neu- 
tralizing the acetous acid at the moment 
of its formation. The chief of these is 
lime under various forms. Quick lime 
does not answer this end. It is partly 
soluble, and, in so far, communicates 
a disagreeable taste» The carbonates, 



if pure, are free from this fault ; and 
therefore, marble dust and powdered 
oyster shells have been generally used. 
Before any vinegar exists in the beer, 
these carbonates of lime usually lie at 
the bottom of the cask inactive ; but on 
the least degree of acetification an ace- 
tate of lime is formed and the carbonic 
acid escapes. The acetate of lime is 
soluble, and, in proportion as it is 
formed, the flavour of the beer is altered. 
It remains, therefore, with the drinker, 
whether he prefers this new bitterish 
taste to that of the acetous acid which 
would otherwise predominate. 

We have here supposed that the car- 
bonate of Ume will remain inactive 
until acetous acid shall be formed ; 
but it may possibly be otherwise. An 
excess of carbonic acid would render it 
soluble, but the same effect would fol- 
low with respect to its union with the 
vinegar. This soluble super-carbonate 
of lime, if effected, would not be dis- 
cernible by the palate ; for it often ex- 
ists plentifully in water without being 
thus observed. Besides, this extra ab- 
sorption of carbonic acid would tend to 
prevent the secondary fermentation, 
which is the usual precursor of acidity. 

Egg-shells and even whole eggs are 
sometimes introduced into beer, in 
which they act the same part as the 
carbonates of lime. The shells are, in 
fact, almost wholly the same substance. 
The following recipe, which was first 
published in an early number (the '27th) 
of the Philosophical Transactions, shows 
that the use of eggs for the prevention 
of acidity is of no modern date. The 
writer (Dr. Stubbs) says that he learned 
it from an ale-seller in Deal, and that 
he tried it, successfully, in a voyage to 
Jamaica. " To every runlet of five 
gallons, after it is placed in the ship not 
to be stiiTed any m.ore, put in two new- 
laid eggs whole, and let them lie in it ; 
in a fortnight, or little more, the whole 
egg-shells will be dissolved, and the eggs 
become like wind-eggs, inclosed only in 
a thin skin ; after this the white is preyed 
on, but the yolks are not touched or cor- 
rupted, by which means the ale was so 
well preserved, that it was found better 
at Jamaica than at Deal." It may be 
observed, that although this was new to 
Dr. Stubbs, he was not the original dis- 
coverer. It was probably known in the 
/raofe for centuries. 

Sulphate of lime, which is partly so- 
luble m water, is put into the cask, after 
it has ceased working, for the purpose 

of preventing an after-fret. If it effect 
this end, it is well ; but at any rate, the 
quantity of six ounces to a barrel can- 
not possibly do harm. 

Hartshorn shavings, to the extent of 
six pounds for twenty barrels, were /or- 
merly boiled in the worts of the best 
London ale. These give out ammonia 
by distillation, and consist chiefly of 
phosphate of lime, with a considerable 
quantity of gelatine. These shavings 
are probably expected to prevent acidity, 
but we are at a loss to know how. The 
ammonia is evaporated, and the phos- 
phate, even were it to act like the car- 
bonate, can scarcely be extracted by 

According to Pliny, the Gauls were 
able to preserve their beer for many 
years. We fear that they have lost the 
secret ; but we shall just notice some of 
the means to which they still have re- 
course, and which are not practised in 
this country. 

The common Avens, or Herb Bennet, 
{Geum Urbanum,) is highly extolled all 
over the continent, f(w its medicinal, as 
well as other valuable properties. It 
was hence, perhaps, that it acquired the 
surname of bennet, or benet, contracted 
from benedictus, although the origin is 
now ascribed to a Saint of that name. 
The roots of this plant, particularly 
when it grows on a dry, sandy soil, have 
a pleasant odour, (similar to that of 
cloves,) which it readily imparts to any 
spirituous menstruum. On this account 
it is highly valued by the brewers ; and 
is said to be a prominent ingredient in 
the Augsburg Beer, which is^so famous 
throughout Germany. The dried roots 
are sliced, and inclosed in a thin linen 
bag, which is suspended in the store- 
vat, or cask ; and it is asserted, with 
what truth we know not, that the beey 
so managed never becomes acid. 

In former times (and the custom is 
not yet completely laid aside) the real, 
or imaginary preventives of acidity were 
inserted into the cask, along with the 
Finings ; or rather, the whole mixture 
passed generally under the latter deno- 
mination. It will be shown, when we 
speak of the process of Saccharification, 
that the portion of unfermented worts, 
which always remains in the beer, is 
often more allied to starch than to sugar; 
and, in that case, it is frequently the 
cause, — not only of foulness, but of 
subsequent acidity. On examining the 
accounts of old processes for the brew- 
ing and cellaring of beer, it is curiou.s 



to observe their consonance with the 
chemical announcements of later times. 
We now know that malt-extract is a 
mixture of Starch and Saccharum, and 
that the former is capable of being de- 
posited by an infusion of Nutgalls. The 
following: directions for the manufacture 
of beer-finings were published in a highly 
respectable French work, nearly a cen- 
tury ago ; and then given as an old and 
general practice among the brewers in 
Paris : — 

Take three pounds of powdered nut- 
galls and four ounces of potash. Boil 
these for three hours in such a quantity 
of water as, at the end of that time, will 
make the weight of the whole mixture 
about twelve pounds. To this, when 
cool, add two pints of spirit of wine ; 
and, after it has settled and become 
clear, bottle it up for use. Five ounces 
of this decoction will be sufficient to 
fine and preserve half a piece of beer. 

When the ale or beer becomes really 
sour, we know not how to extract its 
oxygen. He who shall discover this 
will make his fortune. I f even the vine- 
gar itself could be deposited, the strength 
of the remaining beer might be restored ; 
but though the acidity can be neu- 
tralized by means of the sub-carbonates 
of potash and soda, which, with other 
similar articles, are hawked about as 
nostrums among the publicans, the 
acetous salts still remain dissolved, and 
contaminate the mass. Attempts are 
sometimes made to cover the disagree- 
able taste, by the introduction of sugar- 
candy, — a substance not readily fer- 
mentable,— but, even setting aside the 
trouble and expense, the beer thus said 
to be recovered (although not pernicious) 
is never pleasing to the drinker. 

^ 4. — Of Ingredients which are intended 
to add an extraneous Flavour to the 
Ale or Beer. 
The most agreeable, and, at the same 
time, the most permanent flavours of 
malt liquors are those which are formed 
by the particular modes of fermentation. 
In addition to these, however, certain 
extraneous ingredients have been intro- 
duced, by individual brewers, which have 
given a character to their ales ; and even 
whole districts have adopted peculiari- 
ties of taste which would by no means 
pass generally in other quarters. When 
those ingredients are conlined to this 
single object, their introduction, though 
legally wrong, is not morally vicious; 
and we shall, therefore, mention a few 

which have been most usually em- 

The dried root of the sweet flag 
{Acorns calamus), commonly termed 
Calamus aromaticus, is warm, slightly 
bitter, and has been extolled beyond all 
other British plants for its aromatic fla- 
vour. This root is usually imported 
from the Levant, but does not appear 
to be superior to the growth of our own 

Coriander seeds (Coriandrum sati- 
vum) are imported for the use of the 
brewer, as well as for medicinal pur- 
poses. The plant is found wild in this 
country, but is a doubtful native. 

Carraway (the seeds of the Carum 
carui) have also been used in brewing, 
but not so frequently as the coriander, 
which some believe to add strength as 
well as flavour. Carraway is also found 
wild in England, and, along with the 
coriander, it is cultivated, in some coun- 
ties, for the use of confectioners and 

The three ingredients last mentioned 
have, no doubt, been chosen on account 
of their warm aromatic flavours. All 
have been boiled together in the copper; 
the first sliced, in the proportion of four 
pounds to twenty barrels, and the two 
latter ground, — about two pounds each 
to the same quantity of ale. 

Various other stimulating roots and 
seeds have been made use of: Orange 
peel, powdered, is very generally used 
by the ale-brewers of this country ; as 
also Orange peas, or Cura9oa oranges, 
the unripe fruit of the Citrus aurantium. 
Vegetables of a spicy and more stimu- 
lating taste are likewise in general use. 
Of these, we may mention Long pepper 
{Piper longum) ; Capsicum, or Guinea 
pepper {Capsicum annuum); Grains of 
paradise {Amo?num granum) ; common 
Ginger {Amomum zingiber), &c. One 
or all of these foreign seeds and roots 
are powdered and boiled among the 
worts, in quantities of about three pounds 
to twenty barrels : the quantity being 
regulated by the degree of pungency 

§ 5. — Of Ingredients which are intended 
solely for the purpose of increasing 
the intoxicating power of Beer or 
Hitherto we have treated of ingredients 
which, though illegal, (and, in our opi- 
nion, calculated only to gratify an ac- 
quired taste,) are at least harmless: but 
we have now to speak of articles that 



deserve no quarter, — of such as are 
disgraceful to the brewer, because dan- 
gerous to the drinker. 

The dried fruit of the Menispermum 
cocculus, better known by the names of 
India berry and Cocculus Indicus, claims, 
on account of its very general use, 
the first place in this infernal Ust. Its 
importation into this country (from the 
East Indies) is very great, considering 
that few know for what other purpose it 
is ever used : for, though the Cissam- 
pelos pareira (which many botanists 
state to be the same plant) has a place 
in the pharmacopoeias, its virtues are 
generally referred to the root, and that 
root is brought from America. That 
Cocculus Indicus is a strong narcotic is 
doubtless ; for it is on that account 
alone that it has preserved its place in 
the brewery. In India the berries are 
thrown into the water for the purpose of 
catching fish, which, by swallowing 
them, become intoxicated. They were 
once used in England in the same way, 
but, we believe, that practice is now 
prohibited. Their effects upon the hu- 
man frame we know not, neither do we 
wish to know. 

The extensive use of this ingredient 
(and we have good reason to believe 
that it is still used extensively) was 
proved to a Committee of the House of 
Commons in 1818. Those who give 
brewing receipts recommend it in quan- 
tities of four pounds to twenty barrels, 
boiled with the worts : but there seems 
to be a mystery on this subject which 
requires to be investigated. 

The Faba amara, or bitter bean, is the 
seed of an East India plant, which, 
though poisonous, has a sanctified name. 
It is the Ignatia amara, St. Ignatius' s 
bean, and is not only botanically, but 
naturally allied to the genus Strychnos, 
a species of which will come next under 
our review. The bitter bean appears in 
many of the works that pretend to teach 
the art of Brewing. It is a large pear- 
shaped berry, with seeds nearly an mch 
long, and extremely bitter. 

Nux vomica ( Strychnos nux vomica)^ 
as described by the botanists, " is the 
fruit, or rather seed of the fruit, or 
berry, of a large tree, growing in Egypt, 
Ceylon, &c. of a strong narcotic qua- 
lity, so as to be ranked in the number of 
poisons." " It is round and flat, about 
an inch broad and near a quarter of an 
inch thick," — " extremely bitter, but 
with little or no smell." " Ignatius's 
bean partakes of the same qualities." 

We suspect that what was at one 
time generally sold to brewers for Coccu- 
lus Indicus was really Nux vomica; and 
that the numerous body of quacks who 
called themselves brewers' druggists, 
and who were almost annihilated by 
Exchequer prosecutions about ten or 
twelve years ago, passed the Faba amara 
and Nux vomica under the name of 
Cocculus Indicus, when making their 
defence, on the same principle as the 
forgers of bank-notes are accustomed 
to plead guilty to the lesser indictment. 
In the examination of Mr. Carr, the 
Solicitor of Excise, before the House of 
Commons, in the document formerly 
mentioned, we have the following words : 
" Is it {^Cocculus Indicus^ a bulky 
commodity, or is it easy to be smug- 
gled ? — It is of the size of a pretty large 
nut ; every piece of it is about the size 
of a nut. It bears the poisonous prin- 
ciple so strongly in it, that by an analysis 
it is very easily separated from the sub- 
stance, and is produced in the form of a 
crystal. Now, if any druggist would 
take the trouble to do that, it would be 
possible to take as small a quantity as a 
thimblefull, which would poison a great 
deal of beer." 

Now this description agrees with the 
appearance of nux vomica, but by no 
means with that of cocculus Indicus, 
which is, originally, about the bulk of a 
black currant, but being dry when 
brought to this country, is of a much 
smaller size. 

Opium is another ingredient which 
was formerly sold, under different dis- 
guises, by those gentlemen druggists, 
and which, we have reason to believe, 
is still in use ; for we have known sei- 
zures of that article in the custody of 
ale-brewers, within the last two years. 
A compound termed multum was (or 25) 
a mixture of opium and other ingredi- 
ents, which sold about ten years ago, at 
five or six shillings a pound, when what 
was called an extract of cocculus was 
charged at a guinea and a-half. Tobacco^ 
too, has been made use of, but how dis- 
guised we have not learned. 

It will be said that every article which 
we have here stigmatized is medicinal, 
and appears in the pharmacopoeias; but 
we also know that there is no substance, 
however deleterious or disgusting, which 
has not, at one time or other, found a 
place in the Materia medica. Besides, 
the parallel is imperfect. In medicine 
the poison is prescribed in measured 
doses, (less or more, according to the 



prudence or the rashness of the physi- 
cian,) and only in such diseases as are 
otherwise deemed incurable ; whereas 
the brewer, or his drayman, administers 
the drugs without discrimination, igno- 
rant and careless of the age, sex, or 
constitution of his patient. 

In the tone of reprehension, which we 
have felt it our duty to assume on this 
subject, we trust that we shall not be 
accused of personality. Let it be re- 
membered that we address ourselves to 
the most worthless of the trade, to such 
as disgrace the name of brewer, by 
sporting with the hves of their fellow- 
creatures, for the sake of gain.* If 

there be any honest man so weak as ts 
suppose that we mean to throw suspi- 
cion upon the brewery in general, we 
wish him to be undeceived. We are 
willing to believe that the number of 
reckless beings who use deleterious in- 
gredients are few ; but that there exist 
those few, is too well ascertained, from 
the seizures and convictions that have 
been so often made, and are still making, 
by the Excise. Our denunciations are 
directed solely against the guilty ; and 
sorry should we be, if they could possi- 
bly be conceived to allude to any re- 
spectable House, or to any honoiu-able 

See Coroner's Inquest in the Times Newspaper of the 29th of June last. 


Part II. 



^ws. practical instructions for brewing 
ale and beer, as given by different per- 
sons, are by no means uniform. The 
cause is obvious. The mode of manu- 
facture, and consequently the quality, 
differ in every age and country ; and, 
even in the same nation, the ale of one 
district has little resemblance to that of 
another. The London, Barton, Wilt- 
shire, and Scotch ales are each re- 
markably distinguishable ; and the in- 
structions which are privately given to 
young brewers, take their tone from the 
quarter where the instructor has been 
bred. He who has seen only one of the 
modes of brewing, can have no concep- 
tion of their number and variety. One 
shall mash three or four times, while ano- 
ther shall do so but once. A second shall 
pitch his tun at 80°, when others do so 
:at 45°, the former cleansing in twenty- 
four hours, and the latter waiting three 
or four weeks for the finishing of the 
fermentation. One class of brewers 
attend chiefly to the attenuation, are 
minute in their heats of fermentation, 
weighing the yeast with the utmost care ; 
while there are many gentlemen (at the 
same time, priding themselves on the 
goodness of their ale) who turn the 
worts into the barrels boiling hot, bung 
them up, and stow them for a year in 
their cellars, without any yeast at all. 
Each of these modes of brewing may 
be considered as producing a different 
species of ale ; and each species has its 
varieties depending on natural or acci- 
dental circumstances, (such as the water, 
and the skill of the brewer,) which add 
to its preservative qualities, and give 
certain adventitious flavours. Porter is 
a peculiar species of malt liquor, and 
possesses a general uniformity of taste 
and strength: but this, too, differs in 
its kind; for, although confined in 
its manufacture almost exclusively to 
ten or twelve houses, an experienced 
palate is at no loss to distinguish that 
of any one house from all the others. 


we n^ce now stated, it i< 

From what we in^te now sratea, il is 
obvious that we can give no general set 
of instructio7is which shall apply to 
brewing as an abstract science. We 
shall, therefore, separate our directions 
into divisions, suitable to those species 
of malt liquors, with the brewing of 
which we are best acquainted, but with- 
out affecting, in any way, to exhaust the 
subject ; for we have found, experimen- 
tally, during the course of twenty years, 
that there have occurred to us many 
things of which our philosophy had not 

The press has hitherto furnished very 
little information on the subject of brew- 
ing. Mr. Richardson's work, formerly 
mentioned, contains many useful theore- 
tical hints ; but it was not his intention 
to publish practical rules. These he 
reserved for private communication, by 
which he secured a much greater re- 
ward than usually falls to the lot of 
authors. His pupils were numerous ; 
and his method of brewing, in conse- 
quence, forms one of the divisions with 
which the reader ought to be made ac- 
quainted. It varies extremely from that 
of the Scotch ; and although he treats 
of Burton ale, his method, certainly, is 
not the mode by which ale could be 
made like the Burton of the present day. 
In our opinion, his directions for porter 
are unexceptionable, as far as they go ; 
but that article is now very different 
from what it once was, and what it 
might be. At all events, Mr. Richard- 
son's instructions, being very minute, 
will serve us for general reference, when 
we speak of other kinds of malt liquor ; 
and, therefore, we shall copy them, with- 
out alteration, from a manuscript for 
which he was paid a hundred and fifty 
guineas, besides receiving a guarantee 
of secrecy for twenty years . Previously, 
however, it will be necessary to make a 
few remarks upon those changes which 
vegetables undergo, when they are un- 
derstood to be submitted to what have 
been termed the Saccharine and the 
Villous fermentations. 




Chapter II. 

Of the Saccharine Fermentation, 
or the Extraction of Worts from Raw 
Grain, and other Vegetables. 

"Whether or not the saccharum, or 
sweet, of vegetables be identically the 
same, wherever it is found, has not 
been, and perhaps cannot be, ascer- 
tained. That of the sugar-cane and the 
beet-root is equally cry stalliz able and 
undistinguishable ; but there are many 
other saccharine extracts which it has 
hitherto been attempted in vain to crys- 
tallize. To the brewer, however, they 
have all one principle in common. Sac- 
charine infusions, from whatever vege- 
tables they may be drawn, are capable 
of undergoing a fermentation, during 
•which carbonic acid is evolved ; the 
liquid becomes of less specific gravity, 
acquires a vinous flavour, and gives out 
alcohol by distillation. These are the 
essential characteristics of a sweet ex- 
tract ; so much so that, instead of sac-. 
charine, it is more generally termed /(?7*- 
mentable, matter. Indeed, this is the 
more appropriate denomination ; for, 
should any vegetable sweet be found 
that is incapable of this chemical change, 
it would necessarily require to be ar- 
ranged in a different division of vege- 
table substances. 

The saccharine matter of plants is 
often found ready formed in their juices, 
during certain periods of their growth, 
or in their fruits when arrived at matu- 
rity. The tasteless seed becomes sweet 
when it is developed into a stem ; and 
the acid berry of the summer turns sac- 
charine in the harvest. These are the 
operations of nature, which we some- 
times imitate by art. In either case, 
the internal action, by which the sweet- 
ness is produced, has been termed Sac- 
charijication, and, by some, the Sac- 
charine ferinentation. The latter deno- 
mination has been objected to ; but 
whether or not this change be the con- 
sequence of a real fermentation can be 
judged only when this term is sufficiently 

That portion of the flour, or farina, of 
the cereal grains, and of certain roots, 
such as potatoes, arrow-root, &c., which 
forms a turbid milk-like liquid, when 
mixed with cold water, and is deposited 
in an almost tasteless powder, is called 
fecula. In its pure state, it is the starch 
of commerce. It is this fecula that is 
converted into sweet in the incipient 
process of the vegetation of grain, whe- 

ther carried on by sowing it in the earth, 
or by spreading it, in a moist state, on 
the malting-floor. Bulbous roots, too, 
become sweet when they begin to spring, 
as may be generally observed in pota- 
toes, which, in that state, are unfit for 
culinary purposes. 

For the oldest and best-known mode 
of producing the saccharification of bar- 
ley, or other grain, we must refer our 
readers to the Treatise on Malting: 
there are other operations that produce 
a similar effect, which will come more 
properly under the present head. The 
artificial saccharification of fruits be- 
longs to the Treatises on the Brewing 
of Cyder and Perry, and on Wine^ 

The discovery of the rapid saccharifi- 
cation of fecula originated with the dis- 
tillers. *' It is thus," says M. Dubrun- 
faut, " that, in the chemical arts, prac- 
tice generally precedes theoretical rules ; 
and that the manufacturer, distant from 
the observations of the learned, is able 
to produce a certain effect, during a 
long course of years, before the philoso- 
pher has suspected the probability of 
such a production. In fact, spirituous 
liquors were distilled from unmalted 
grain and potatoes, long before the 
chemical doctrines admitted its possi- 

As soon as the fact attracted their 
attention, the continental chemists (who 
more than those of this country apply 
their science to the arts) endeavoured to 
elucidate the subject by their experi- 
ments. Kirchoff, of St. Petersburg, first 
converted -^wre fecula into a saccharine 
semifluid substance, by means of sul- 
phuric acid, with long boiling; and his 
process, with slight improvements, is 
still followed by many of the Parisian 
distillers. This, and other means for 
effecting the same purpose, are detailed 
by the author last quoted ; but the 
French distil their materials in a pasty 
rather than a fluid form, and in such a 
state, however saccharine it may be, it 
is unfitted for the brewer. The English 
and Scotch distillers make pure worts, 
and these are always capable of being 
converted into beer. M. Dubrunfaut's 
method of distilling and brewing from 
potatoes is worth quoting ; being quite 
practicable, and little known in this coun- 
try. We shall, however, abridge rather 
than copy his memoir : — 

Having rasped the potatoes as fine 

• " Traite de Vart de la Distillation.** 



as possible, he put 400 kilogrammes 
(882 pounds) of the pulp into a brew- 
er's mash-tun, having a double bottom ; 
and while the workmen were stirring the 
mash in all directions, with oars or 
rakes, he mixed it with boiling water, 
•which, the fecula being set at hberty, 
turned the whole mass into a jelly, simi- 
lar to the starch of the laundress. He 
then added 20 kilogrammes (44 pounds) 
of malt, ground to a fine powder, and, 
at the same time, a small quantity of 
wheat-chaff {courte paille de froment) 
to assist the draining. The whole, being 
well mixed, began immediately to become 
fluid, and gradually sweetened, during 
the space of two hours, when it was 
drained from the mash-tun in the same 
manner as is done by the brewer, and 
carried to the fermenting-tun. A new 
quantity of liquor was added to the 
remaining pulp, as a second mash, at 
the heat of 50° Reaumur (145° Fahren- 
heit). This being stirred and afterwards 
drained, the pulp was squeezed in a 
cylindrical press, in order to get as much 
of the saccharine as possible, before 
giving the refuse to the cattle. The 
liquid fermented well without any depo- 
site that could effect the distillation, 
and produced 54 litres (14| wine gal- 
lons) of spirits of the specific gravity 

M. Dubrunfaut also applied his dis- 
covery to brewing. After having treated 
the fecula in the manner above-men- 
tioned, he added hops, and carried the 
strength to the specific gravity of 1042, 
or abuut 15 pounds per barrel. The 
wort fermented well, and had a fine 
"vinous smell. It was bottled a few days 
after, when it ripened, and resembled 
the beer VN'hich is made in Paris. He 
also fermented the wort without hops, 
replacing them, as is done in certain 
provinces, with honey, and obtained a 
beer which had the taste and other 
qualities of the famous beer of Louvain. 

It will readily be supposed that other 
farinaceous grains and roots, that is, 
such as yield a portion, more or less, 
of starch, may also be converted into 
saccharine matter; and, in fact, rye, 
rice, maize, chesnuts, and numerous 
other mealy fruits, as well as roots, 
have been made to produce vinous 
liquors. In this country, however, the 
chief ingredient, and the cheapest for 
the purpose, is barley ; and to this grain 
the brewers have, in almost every case, 
limited their operations. The distillers 
frequently make use of a mixture of 

different kinds of grain, and especially 
oats, but the barley always predomi- 
nates. We have never seen oats used 
in the brewery ; although it is well 
ascertained that oatmalt formed one of 
the ingredients in the multifarious mix- 
ture called mum, which was a favourite 
vinous liquor among our ancestors. 

The extraction of wort from raw grain 
was long practised by the Scotch low- 
land distillers ; but it was not until the 
enormous additions^ to the malt duties 
(m 1802 and 1803) \hat unmalted bar- 
ley was resorted to by the brewers. 
From that period until the year 1811, 
v»'hen the practice was checked by the 
Excise, the more scientific brewers were 
enabled to save two-thirds of the malt 
duty ; and, consequently, gained an ad- 
vantage over their less knowing bre- 

Although, by means of a mixture of 
chaff, a wort may be drawn from raw 
grain, with the addition of only one- 
twentieth part of malt, and, we believe, 
without any malt at all, yet such means 
have not hitherto been used by the 
brewer. During an experience of seven 
or eight years, we found the most conve- 
nient proportion to be that of two parts 
of raw grain to one of malt. The worts, 
in that case, run more completely 
from the grains after the first mash. 
Confined as this usage must now be 
to private brewings, the quantities must 
be small, and therefore the following 
directions are suited to mashes not ex- 
ceeding three quarters, and at the same 
time (ijy observing the proportions), will 
serve equally well for brewing of half 
that quantity : — 

The malt may be either cut or bruised, 
but the grain must be cut into very fine 
meal. The cutting must be sharp, for 
whatever is powdered into dust is, in a 
great degree, lost. 

Put the quarter of malt, equally 
spread, on the upper bottom of the 
mash-tun, and over that the two quar- 
ters of cut barley. Introduce into the 
goods, through the descending trough 
of the tun formerly mentioned, three- 
fifths of the liquor intended for your 
first mash (suppose 7\ barrels) at the 
heat of 155°. In large mashes 150° is 
sufficient. This liquor rises through 
the perforations in the false bottom, 
penetrates the malt, and flows up in 
fissures through the grain. The goods 
are then well mashed with oars for half 
an hour at least. In large quantities it 
would require, perhaps, twice that time. 
D 2 



The remainine: two-fifths (say five bar- 
rels) of the intended mash is next to be 
introduced in the same manner, at the 
heat of 200°, a few degrees more or less, 
according to circumstances, and the 
mashing is to be continued for half or 
three-quarters of an hour more. The 
tun is then to be covered and allowed to 
settle, which may be in an hour. At 
that time it may happen that a part, if 
not all, of the worts, will be at the top 
of the goods, and must be let off through 
the holes, in the upper part of the trunk 
at the side of the mash-tun, which we 
spoke of when describing that utensil. 
"What drains through the false bottom 
will run off at the same time. 

It may be noticed that the reserved 
portion of the first mash need not be all 
run on at once. The object is to keep 
the goods intimately mixed in liquor at 
an average heat of 140 to 150 degrees, 
(at which heat the saccharification is 
more readily obtained,) and for a time 
sufficiently long to effect that change in 
every portion of the dissolved fecula. 
During the whole of the process, the 
wort increases in sweetness ; but neither 
taste nor time affords any certainty of 
the sweetness having reached its maxi- 
mum. A quantity of unaltered starch 
may be held in solution, which adds its 
weight to the liquid, and affects the sac- 
charometer. Although not converted 
into saccharwn, it is nevertheless effec- 
tual to the distiller, because it undergoes 
the saccharine fermentation, along with 
the vinous in the working-tun. It is 
not, however, the same to the brewer. 
His endeavour is to stop the attenuation 
while a portion of the fermentable mat- 
ter is still weighable in the worts ; and 
it is of some consequence whether that 
remaining portion be saccharine, or a 
less altered starch. 

The l)est criterion that has been yet 
found for ascertaining when the saccha- 
rification has reached its last stage, is 
iodine. This substance is a very nice 
test of the presence of starch, whether 
in a state of suspension or of solution, 
in liquids ; and, for that purpose, it is 
used by the continental distillers. If we 
pour a few drops of the tincture of iodine 
into a wine glass filled with the worts of 
raw grain, when the mashing is just 
begun, the mixture will be instantly 
coloured of a deep blue. As the sac- 
charification advances, the worts, with 
the same test, will be lighter and lighter 
in the tint; until, at last, the colour, 
remaining unchanged, will show that 

the tran*. formation of the starch into 
saccharum is completed, as far as this 
process is effectual for the purpose. 

The goods absorb a great proportion 
of the liquor, so that the worts of the 
first mash will run very short of what 
is drawn from malt. The subsequent 
mash or mashes will present little differ- 
ence of appearance from those of malted 
grain ; and, in the proportions above 
stated, will, in most cases, pass freely 
through the goods in the ordinary way. 
At all events, the second and third 
mashes will present no difficulty. 

" We should err very much," says Dr. 
Thomson,* " were we to suppose that 
the whole kernel, or starchy part of the 
malt is dissolved by the hot w^ater used 
in brewing. At least one half of the 
malt still! remains after the brewing is 
over, constituting the grains." " One 
hundred pounds of malt, from different 
kinds of grain, after being exhausted as 
much as usual of the soluble part of the 
kernel by hot water, were found to weigh 
as follows : — 

English barley . . 50.63 lb. 
Scotch barley . . 50.78 
Scotch big . . . 52.69 
" A hundred pounds of raw grain 
being converted into malt, and the solu- 
ble part of the malt extracted by hot 
water, the residue weighed 

English barley . . 51.558 lb. 
Scotch barley . . 50.831 
Scotch big . . . 53.500 
" In another set of experiments, with 
malt of worse qualities, a hundred 
pounds of malt left the following resi- 

English barley . . 54 . 9 lb. 
Scotch barley . . 56.9 
Scotch big . . . . 56.6 
"It is probable," the Doctor adds, 
" that an additional portion of the ker- 
nel would be dissolved if the malt were 
ground finer than it is customary to do. 
The reason for grinding only coarsely is 
to render it less apt to set. But this ob- 
ject might be accomplished equally well 
by bruising the malt between rollers, 
which would reduce the starchy part to 
powder without destroying the husk." 

To bruise the malt is certainly a pre- 
ferable practice to cutting it in coarse 
pieces ; but we have been accustomed 
to grind malt, as well as raw grain, 
with stones as small as oatmeal, without 
ever setting the goods ; and this we con- 

* Supplement to th Encyclopaedia Britannica ; 
article Brswino, 

BREWING. • 37 

sider as a still better mode than cylin- Raw grain is generally supposed ia 
ders, even for malt. In the case of un- yield a less proportion of extract than 
malted or badly malted grain the stones malt; but this, too, we are assured, 
are indispensable. must be the fault of management. We 
We are perfectly convinced that, in have before us the results of a number 
the above-mentioned experiments, the of experiments, on a very large scale, 
grist must have been either very ill of which the following is an abstract, 
prepared, or the process must have been reduced to a thousand quarters. The 
badly conducted ; for a hundred pounds grist was barley, oats and malt ; the 
of good malt ouglit by no means to have latter in a small proportion — perhaps- 
left above thirty pounds weight of dry not more than a twentieth : — 

Brewed 8,000 bushels of grain, weighing 387,300 lbs. 

W^eight of dry extract, according to Dicas's Saccharometer, 

as nearly as could be ascertained 253,308 lbs. 

Weight supposed remaining in the grains 133,992 lbs. 

Being doubtful, however, of the accu- had before grinding; and the weight 
racy of the indications of dry extract was found equivalent to fourteen pounds 
by the instrument, a known proportion per bushel. The whole of the grains were 
of the grains was dried, until they had then measured, and thereby gave another 
apparently the same dryness as the grain and more accurate comparison. Thus,. 

Brewed 8,000 bushels of grain, weighing 387,30^^ Ibs,- 

Sold 8,672 of grains, ditto 121,40^ 

The difference, being the amount of extract 265,892 

Dry extract shown by the instrument 253,308 

Apparent error in the instrument, being about 5 per cent. . . ' 12,584^ 
" Calculating the proportions from these two sets of experiments: — 

lbs. grain, lbs. extract. lbs. 

By the first, 100 gave 65.41, leaving in the grains 34.59 

By the second , 100 — 68.65 31.35 

Average . . too — 67.03 32.97 

It still appears that nearly a third of floor or in the mash-tun, — the strength 
the kernel remains unextracted ; more of the worts, that is, their power of pro- 
than half of which, we are convinced, ducing an intoxicating liquid, either in 
is owing to ignorance of the art. One the form of alcohol, or of a vinous liquor, 
improvement, in the case now under is always accurately designated by the 
our consideration, seems obvious : oats, excess of their specific gravity beyond 
barley, and malt require, each, a differ- that of water, multiplied by their quan- 
ent heat for the proper solution of their tity. Distinct from flavour, this product 
substance. This might be applied, were maybe considered as the measure of 
each to have its separate mash-tun, but their comparative value. Thus six bar- 
not when they are mingled into one. rels of wort, of thirty pounds per barrel. 

Many of the remarks, which we have is equivalent to four barrels at forty-five ■ 

made in this chapter, may appear to be- pounds : the product in each case being 

long to the distillery rather than to the one hundred and eighty. It has already ■ 

brewery ; but the two trades are inti- been shown, in Chapter V. of the first 

mately connected. The distiller and the Part, that the extra- weight of a barrel of ' 

vinegar-maker are necessarily brewers worts, beyond that of water, is only 

in the first part of their operations ; and, about four-tenths of the weight of sac- 

from both, the ordinary brewer may charine matter contained in the infusion ; 

gain instruction. All have this in com- but, the proportion being always the 

mon, to extract as much of the kernel same, the weight thus shown by the sac- 

of the malt, or grain, as they possibly can. charometer answers all the purposes of 

the brewer ; and it is, therefore, of this 

Chapter III. extra-weight that the expressions "gra- 

^ ,r T^ vity" and "weight of the wort" are ge- 

Of the Vinous Fermentation. „ J^ji^ understSod. 

In whatever way the saccharification is The saccharine extract (or worts) 
produced,— whether on the malting- being prepared, and boiled with the hops 



where that ingredient is required, is 
next made to undergo the vinous fer- 
mentation. This chemical process (which 
was formerly the only change in vege- 
table extracts that had the name of 
fermentation) operates by the destruc- 
tion of the saccharum, both as to taste 
and weight; and, when carried to its 
utmost point, produces a hquid of less 
specific gravity than water, and of a 
taste in which the sweetness is little, if at 
all, perceptible : it is vinous, or that of 

The juices of the sugar-cane, of the 
grape and of many other fruits, when 
kept in certain temperatures, enter spon- 
taneously into the vinous fermentation. 
In the brewing of malt liquors a very 
general practice has been, to add to the 
worts a quantity of the yeast, or froth 
of the previous fermentations, in order 
to hasten the present operation ; and it 
was not until some experiments were 
made by Mr. Henry, on the effect of 
carbonic acid, that the chemists con- 
ceived that the fermentation of malt 
liquar could be produced without the 
assistance of yeast. Notwithstanding, 
the brewing of ale, without a particle of 
yeast, has been practised by the farmers 
of certain districts, in this country, from 
time immemorial. We have, ourselves, 
had the experience of worts entering 
into a spontaneous fermentation, with- 
out acquiring any improper flavour, or 
running into acidity ; but they require 
time, and time cannot be well spared in 
the modern system of manufactures. 
What formerly required years to im- 
prove must now be brought into the mar- 
ket in two or three weeks. The present 
mode of porter-brewing is a prominent 
instance : the large vats, in which that 
article was wont to be stored for eighteen 
or twenty-four months, ai-e now compa- 
ratively useless. 

From the moment that the worts are 
mixed with the yeast in the fermenting 
tun, their gravity begins to decrease, and 
this decrease is termed their attenuation. 
A wort, for instance, of forty pounds 
per barrel shall, in a few hours, be 
reduced to ten, by the extrication of car- 
bonic acid, the elements of which must 
have previously existed in a very con- 
densed state : for, notwithstanding this 
immense decrease of weight, the quantity, 
or bulk, of the liquid undergoes no per- 
ceptible alteration. 

All saccharine liquors, after they have 
been submitted to the vinous fermenta- 
tion, are capable of producing a portion 

of alcohol, by the process of distillation ; 
and the quantity which may thus be ex- 
tracted is found to be exactly propor- 
tionate to the degree of attenuation. 
Thus a barrel of wort that has lost forty 
pounds of its weight will produce twice 
the quantity of pure spirit which could 
be extracted from a barrel of wort that 
had lost only twenty pounds in the 
attenuation. This, too, is independent 
of the original weight of the wort ; for 
the same extent of attenuation (suppose 
twenty pounds) will produce the same 
quantity of spirits, whether the original 
gravity of the worts has been thirty 
pounds or fifty. 

Seeing that the quantity of spirit is in 
proportion to the attenuation, it is obvi- 
ously the interest of the distiller to carry 
that attenuation as far as possible ; and, 
in as far as alcoholic strength is con- 
cerned, this would also be the interest of 
the brewer. The latter, however, has 
an additional object in view, namely, j^a- 
vour ; and he finds that he cannot please 
the taste of his customers unless a weigh- 
able portion of the saccharum remains 
in the ale. The former, therefore, is 
frequently able, by strong fermentations, 
to reduce his worts to the weight of wa- 
ter, while the latter, after keeping it a 
twelvemonth, still expects to find from 
three to six pounds of gravity in his 
beer. It is for this reason that the 
brewer is so careful not to exceed in the 
quantity of yeast which he puts into the 
gyle-tun ; and that, in strong ale, he 
wishes the tumultuary fermentation in 
the gyle-tun to close, while eight or ten 
pounds of the weight still remains unat- 
tenuated, to be afterwards slowly de- 
composed in the casks. 

It was long a matter of contest 
whether alcohol exists ready formed in 
fermented liquors, or is produced in the 
process of distillation. The chemists 
are now generally satisfied that it is 
produced by the fermentation alone. 
They have extracted the alcohol at heats 
far below the boiling point of water, and 
by other means than by distillation; and, 
from those experiments, they do not 
hesitate to assert that alcohol, properly 
so called, exists in wine and beer. It is 
not, however, presumed that alcohol is 
a simple substance ; and one who is not 
a chemist may still suspect that the 
atoms of which it is afterwards to be 
composed, although contained in the 
fluid, may exist in a discordant state, 
until united by some process that de- 
stroys their other affinities. But what- 



ever may become of those theories, it is 
certain that these atoms, whether sepa- 
rately in solution or combined into alco- 
hol, constitute a whole that is lighter 
than water; for when a wort is fer- 
mented so low as to show nothing be- 
yond water, by the saccharometer, it 
still, according to the experiments of 
Dr. Thomson, contains about one-fifth 
of its original saccharum unfermented. 
Thus a barrel of wort of thirty pounds, 
when fermented to the weight of w-ater 
and its alcohol distilled, will leave as much 
saccharine matter in the still-bottoms, 
as, if mixed with water to its original 
quantity, would make a barrel of about 
six pounds gravity, which might be fer- 
mented into beer. This latent weight, or 
unattenuated gravity, is counterbalanced 
by the alcohol (or its component parts), 
which is as much lighter than water as 
the saccharum is heavier. When ale or 
beer is attenuated in a great degree, as 
it usually is when exported to a warm 
climate, it again enters into a sponta- 
neous fermentation, at the expense of 
this unattenuated, but latent, saccha- 
rum. ■ 

The acetous fermentation is the reverse 
of the vinous. The moment it takes 
place the vinous liquor becomes heavier 
by the absorption of oxygen ; and the 
alcohol (or its composing principles) is 
destroyed, exactly in proportion to the 
increase of weight. If a distiller's fer- 
menting-tun, for example, shall have 
been attenuated from the gravity of 
twenty to that of two pounds, he ex- 
pects, and would procure, a quantity of 
spirit corresponding to eighteen pounds 
of attenuation ; but should he, by any 
oversight, allow the acid fermentation to 
proceed unobserved, until his worts 
(wash) should increase in gravity two 
pounds, so as to show only sixteen 
pounds of attenuation when they had 
once shown eighteen, he would find that 
he had lost the value of two pounds, or 
exactly one-ninth of the quantity of 
alcohol which he might have had. 

AVhen a distiller's tun has ceased to 
attenuate, it runs rapidly into the acetous 
fermentation ; and increases in weight 
at the expense of the alcohol, if (as it is 
said) the alcohol be really formed. Ac- 
cording to this theory, when the attenua- 
tion is apparently complete, four fifths 
of the saccharine matter is converted 
into equal quantities of carbonic acid 
and spirit. With a mixture of half that 
proportion of alcohol, no saccharine 
liquor would ever become sour. Does 

not this circumstance render it probabl 
that the alcohol is not completely 
formed ? 

It is so generally allowed, that we 
have taken it for granted, that the acetous 
acid (vinegar) is formed, in vinous 
liquors, by the absorption of oxygen. If 
this be true, the contact of atmospheric 
air must be particularly dangerous to 
the ale-brewer. Various plans have 
been proposed to prevent its access, 
but none of them have been successful. 
In attempting to stop the acetous, they 
cheek the vinous fermentation ; and it 
is only when the latter has completely 
subsided, that the vessels can be closely 
bunged up. 

Two evils have been stated as the 
consequence of fermenting worts in open 
tuns : first, the loss of alcohol, which is 
supposed to escape in union with the 
carbonic acid ; and second, the germ of 
acetous acid, which is believed to be 
communicated to the beer by the con- 
tact of the atmospheric air with the sur- 
face of the liquid. Patents have been 
granted, both in France and in this 
country, for a method of closing the 
tuns, so as to exclude the atmospheric 
air, and also to condense any alcohol 
that may be endeavouring to escape. 
The plans proposed are of very ancient 
date, although recently announced as a 
modern invention of a Mademoiselle 
Gervais. Our limits do not permit us 
to describe the particulars ; but it js of 
the less consequence, as we should do 
so only to show its inutility in the brew- 
ery. To those who have seen the 
pamphlet which circulates the wonderful 
announcements of the value of the in- 
vention, the following remarks will be 
sufficient : those who have not seen it, 
may rest satisfied that its perusal would 
not render them wiser. 

Whilst the worts are fermenting, 
carbonic acid is evolved, and fills a por- 
tion of the vacuity of the tun, immedi- 
ately above the hquor, which excludes 
the common air as effectually as the 
closest cover. It can only be when this 
gas ceases to be generated, that oxygen 
can gain admittance ; and, before that 
time, every skilful brewer has cleansed 
his beer into casks, exposing only a 
small bung- hole, which is also closed 
the moment the yeast has ceased to 
issue. During the whole period of the 
tumultuary fermentation, the pressure is 
outward not inward; and a lighted 
candle, held over the yeasty head, will 
shew that not a particle of oxygen can 



be admitted. When this evolution of 
gas becomes so weak as not to form a 
stratum above the hquid, the introduc- 
tion of air may begin, especially if 
the heat of the tun is high ; and this, 
\ye believe, frequently happens with the 
distillers, (who carry the attenuation to 
the utmost practicable point) especially 
when the surface of the tun is large in 
proportion to its depth. A cover in 
this case is proper, and perhaps it would 
be better to have an aperture which 
might be contracted, so as always to 
preserve a certain depth of stratum of 
iixed air above the still fermenting 

With respect to the alcohol which is 
said to be carried off wdth the carbonic 
acid, neither can this apply to the brew- 
ery, as generally practised. In the heat 
of a tun which seldom exceeds 75°, the 
alcohol (or whatever spirituous sub- 
stance it may be) can lose little or no- 
thing by evaporation. In the Scotch 
practice, the heat is almost always under 
65°; and we know not by what means 
the particles, that would escape at that 
temperature, could be condensed. If 
there really is a loss, it is certainly so 
small as to be unworthy of attention.^; 

Chapter IV, 

Practical Instructions by Mr. Richard- 

Art. I. — For Mild Ale in general. 

1 . — Heat of the Liquor, 

This being an ale which requires early 
purity, the first heat of the liquor must 
therefore scarcely ever be under, and is 
not seldom above, 180°, to which 5° are 
to be added for the second mash, and 
5° more for the third, where three mashes 
are made for strong ale; but where 
there are two only, the addition may be 
10°; that is, ]80° and 190°. If, how- 
ever, you find by experience that a lower 
heat of the liquor will produce purity, 
this will be a preferable practice, as 
producing a more mucilaginous wort, 
and it is better calculated for making 
small beer after it. It is therefore ad- 
visable that you begin with the heat of 
the liquor just mentioned, and then try 
175° for the first mash, varying 5° at a 
time in different brewings, for the sake 
of practice and experience. Sometimes, 
indeed, when I take my first heat at 
180°, or higher, I only increase 5° for 
my second, though I have but two 
mashes for strong ale, in order to avoid 

that thinness on the palate, which too 
high a heat is sometimes apt to produce. 

§ 2. — Time of Infusion. 

If there be only one mash for strong 
ale, as is sometimes the case for ale of 
great strength, the time of infusion 
should be four hours. If there be two 
mashes, allow three hours for the first,, 
and two or two and a half hours for the 
second ; and if three mashes,', allow two 
and a half or three hours for the first, 
two for the second, and one and a half 
or two hours for the third ; it being in- 
tended to allow as much time as is con- 
sistent with the proper forming of the 
extract, and the necessary expedition of 
the process. 

§ 3. — Quantity of Hops. 

To ale made from worts whose average 
specific gravity is about thirty pounds 
(which answers to about two barrels 
from a quarter of malt), not less than 
two pounds of hops should be used in 
winter, and more as the season advances, 
even to four pounds in a great heat of 
the atmosphere ; or it is perhaps more 
rational to apportion the hops to the 
malt used, in which case eight pounds 
per quarter are allowed, for the more 
certain preservation of the ale. This 
being adapted for the climate of Eng- 
land, a greater portion ought to be 
allowed where the b eat of the air is 

§ 4. -Time of Boiling. 
This in general, should be only til 1 the 
wort breaks pure, in order to extract 
only the finer parts of the hops; but in 
great heats of the air, a longer time in 
boiling, as well as a greater portion of 
hops, is necessary for the preservation 
of the ale. For this purpose, also, 
(having in view a finer flavour in the 
ale,) it is advisable to boil the wort for 
an hour or more, before the hops are 
added, which renders it more preser- 
vable, at the same time that it avoids 
the rank extract of the hops. If, how- 
ever, those produced in Worcestershire 
be used, the mildness of their flavour 
renders this precaution unnecessary. 

What is meant here by breaking pure, 
is that state of the wort when the hops 
subside to the bottom, and the mucila- 
ginous parts of the malt are coagulated 
into large lumps, and float up and down 
in it, very rapidly, leaving the interstices 
of the wort perfectly pure. This gene- 
rally happens (when the wort is boiled 



brisWy, as it ought always to be) in 
about twenty or twenty-five minutes in 
the first wort, but is somewhat longer in 
the others. The mode of observing it 
is, to take a little wort in a bowl or dish, 
after having boiled about a quarter of 
an hour, and let it stand steady to ob- 
serve the effect ; and, by doing so every 
five minutes after, for two or three times, 
you will note the difference, and soon 
become a competent judge. Without 
making this observation, you cannot err 
much in boiling the first wort about 
three-quarters of an hour, and an hour 
or an hour and a half the second ; or if 
you boil altogether, the whole time may 
be allowed. This, however, respects the 
extract of the hops rather than the eff*ect 
it is to have on the wort ; and :is in- 
tended only for the winter season, and 
when the ale is for present use. 

5. — Method of Fermentation. 

As in this part of the process the great- 
est effects are produced by the heat of 
the fermentation, so the greatest atten- 
tion to its progress is necessary. The 
first heat (that is, when all the wort is 
first in the gyle tun) is to be considered 
of no other consequence than as con- 
ducing to the last or highest heat to 
which the fermentation will arrive ; and 
this is found to have a very important 
influence on the flavour and other quali- 
ties of the ale. At 75° the first flavour 
of mild ale commences ; for irnder that 
it is more properly the flavour of ale in- 
tended to be improved by long keeping. 
At 80° the flavour of ale is more per- 
fect ; at 85° it approaches the high 
flavour ; at 90° it may be termed high, 
but is sometimes carried to 100° and 
upwards ; the flavour increasing as the 
heat of the fermentation rises. It must 
still be remembered that I refer to the 
highest heat ; and therefore at whatever 
degree you would have the fermentation 
finish, you must begin it at such a heat 
as experience has taught you will rise at 
last to the desired heat, but no higher. 
For instance, a wort of thirty pounds 
per barrel ought to increase about 15°, 
so that in order to arrive at 80°, you. 
nmst begin at 65° ; but as it is impos- 
sible to say how your yeast will ferment 
(upon the quality of which the success 
of this operation entirely depends), it 
•were safer in a small gyle, and in a low 
heat of the §,tmosphere, to begin at first 
between 05° and 70° ; and if you find it 
increase 15° or more, you are to lower 
the heat of your* next gyle accordingly ; 

that is, so as to bring your highest heat 
of fermentation between 75° and 80°, or 
not much to exceed the latter; for, 
though a high heat produces the most 
agreeable flavour, the ale will not ulti- 
mately be so lively, nor will it be so 
soon fine, as from a contrary practice. 
It may not, however, be amiss to remark, 
that Forlow's celebrated Cambridge ale 
was begun at the heat of 90°, and has 
been sometimes carried as high as near 
1 1 0°, producing that peculiarity of fla- 
vour which rendered his and the ale at 
one of the colleges by the same man, so 
famous, that some of it has been drunk 
at the king's table. 

The quantity of good solid yeast tc 
be used, should be proportioned to the 
specific gravity of the worts, the pre- 
vailing heat of the weather, and the heat 
of fermentation. To a wort of thirty 
pounds per barrel, if the heat of the air 
be low, and the first heat of fermentation 
65°, or a little more, two pounds per 
barrel, or more, may be used. If the 
first heat be 70°, or not much under, 
H or \l lbs. maybe sufficient. This,, 
when the first heat is about 70°, may be 
all used at first ; when it is lower, two- 
thirds may be used at first, and the re- 
mainder the next morning. In either 
case the quantity first used should be 
put into the gyle-tun, and as much wort 
let down to it as will cover the bottom, 
one and a half or two inches. The heat 
of this wort should not be less than 85° 
or 90°, in which state, being well mixed 
with the yeast, it puts it into immediate 
action, and prepares it for the reception 
of the rest of the wort at the required 
heat. When an addition of yeast is- 
made, the whole should be well roused, 
to mix them the more readily. 

These previous steps being taken, 
there is nothing uncertain but the 
strength and consequent operation of 
the yeast ; and if the heat of the fermen- 
tation fall considerably short of the in- 
crease before-mentioned, the whole fer- 
mentation will be imperfect, the ale will 
have a heavy mixed flavour of sweet 
and bitter, and the fault is to be attri- 
buted to nothing but want of strength 
in the yeast. This can only be remedied 
by a fresh supply from some other 
brewer ; and you must not be disheart- 
ened if the first or second change should 
not succeed ; for there must be a new 
supply procured till some be found 
which will answer the desired end. 

Even when a perfect fermentation is 
procured, the strength of the yeast will 


in time degenerate, and render another 
change necessary; and particularly so 
when the fermentation is carried to its 
utmost extent. 

■i It is also to be remembered that I do 
not recommend rousing the worts in the 
gyle-tun, except as before-mentioned, 
because it communicates a rank flavour 
of yeast to the ale, though it perhaps 
adds to its strertgth : this rule, however, 
can only hold good when the yeast is of 
sufficient strength ; for, when it is weak, 
or suspected of being so, it will be 
necessary not only to increase the yeast 
considerably, by additions at every three 
or four hours during the day after brew- 
ing, but to rouse, at every addition, and 
even to continue these rousings till 
cleansing, in order to carry off the sac- 
charine of the malt, and produce, as much 
as possible, that uniformity of flavour 
which good yeast would have eflected in 
the first instance. 

§ 6. — Rules f 07' Cleansing. 

It is my practice to look every two 
hours into the gyle-tun, during the fer- 
mentation, whence I observe its pro- 
gress very acciuately. My principal 
attention is directed to the heat of the 
fermentation, which generally increases 
very slowly at first, but when the fer- 
mentation is in full force, its general 
increase is half a degree per hour, which 
progress declines in proportion as the 
fermentation advances towards a con- 
clusion, till at length it stands still, and 
sometimes decreases before the vinous 
fermentation is entirely complete, espe- 
cially where the volume of wort is small. 
This, then, is the grand rule for cleans- 
ing : whilst the heat is increasing, you 
may rest assured that the vinous fer- 
mentation is not finished ; but so soon 
as it is at its height, you are to turn your 
attention to the smell of the ale. Whence 
you will observe, that in the middle of 
the fermentation, the fixed air strikes 
into the head so powerfully, on smelling 
with the nose lower than the upper edge 
of the gyle-tun, that it would, perhaps, 
be death to inhale it a second time, with- 
out intermission; but this force so much 
abates towards the conclusion of the fer- 
mentation, that, at the proper period for 
cleansing, it no longer stmgs the nos- 
trils, nor strikes violently into the head, 
but just feels warm, and being drawn 
into the lungs, only occasions strong 
efforts to discharge the gas exactly 
similar to the effect of a sudden exertion 
in running up a hill, vulgarly termed 

being out of breath. The ale will then 
have lost its saccharine if the fermenta- 
tion has been perfect, and will have ac- 
quired an uniform vinosity both in its 
smell and taste. The head will also then 
have a regular compact appearance of 
yeast, provided it be so low a heat of 
fermentation as 75° or a little more, but 
in proportion as the heat is carried fur- 
ther, the head becomes less ; so that a 
fermentation of 90° or more will only 
exhibit blistery bubbles, and discharge 
no yeast till the ale be cleansed into 
casks, which, in that case, should not 
be larger than barrels, because it re- 
quires the heat to be lessened as ex- 
peditiously as may be, to facilitate the 
discharge of the yeast, and larger casks 
would be apt to retain it too long. 

It is an advisable practice, when the 
fermentation is carried to its utmost 
period, to use about seven pounds of 
flour from either wheat or beans, to a 
gyle of 25 to 30 barrels, at the time of 
cleansing, in order to accelerate the dis- 
charge of the yeast by the introduction 
of an extra portion of gas into the ale 
for that purpose. This should be 
whisked up in a pail, with some of the 
ale, till all the lumps are broken, when 
it may be enlarged to any specific quan- 
tity, and then having a portion poured 
into each cask, agreeably to its size, the 
ale is to be cleansed upon it. 

Though the above rules for cleansing 
are entirely consistent with my system, 
I nevertheless have found it convenient 
to deviate from them, by cleansing at 
an earlier period, even while the heat of 
fermentation is yet increasing, and the 
fixed air is somewhat strong, in order to 
obtain a better produce of yeast, and 
thence to have less sediment in the casks, 
which sometimes subsides with difficulty 
after removal. By early cleansing, too, 
the yeast is preserved longer in a state 
proper for a perfect fermentation, than 
by a contrary practice. At any rate, 
however, there must be no saccharine 
taste perceptible at the time of deciding 
upon cleansing. When the cleansing 
is finished, the casks should be filled 
quite full, and be filled up out of the 
stillions every two or three hours during 
the first day, and three or four times the 
next. When the ale has nearly done its 
fermentation, if that from the stiUions 
does not run clear, a cask should be 
tapped, to fill up with, and that which is 
thick should be returned into the next 
gyle just before cleansing. 

If the ale be racked off from its lees. 



about three or four days from cleansing, 
and you add to every barrel three pints 
or two quarts of hops, after having 
boiled in the first wort, and (when the 
heat of the air is low) whilst they are 
■warm, it will contribute much to the 
liveliness and purity of the ale, and 
render it much less liable to disorder, in 
removing from cellar to cellar ; but it 
is to be observed, that the hops thus 
added give some rankness to the flavour, 
and racking is not favourable to the pre- 
servation of the ale. In this practice 
the casks should be filled quite fidl, and 
bunged down close, venting only if the 
cask be in danger. But if the ale be 
not racked, the casks should not be 
bunged down so long as the head of the 
ale can be kept up by repeated fillings ; 
for otherwise there would be a circle of 
yeast formed round the inside of the 
bunghole, which would be in part washed 
oft' amongst the ale on removal, and 
- tend to makie it foul. 

Chapter V. 
Richardson's Instructions continued. 

Art. II.— For Old Ale, or such as is 
to be long kept. 

§ 1 . — Heat of the Liquor. 

As purity is not immediately required 
i« this sort of ale, the first mashing heat 
should be as low as practicable ; that is, 
so as just to avoid acidity in the wort, 
which is apt to be produced by a very 
low heat of the liquor. Hence 160° or 
165° may be the first heat, and from 
10° to 15° may be added for the second, 
if there be but two mashes, and 10° 
each if there be three. Thus if the first 
heat be 160°, and you find no tendency 
to acidity in the last running of the worts, 
then these rules may be observed ; but 
if there should be a little acidity dis- 
cernible, it were advisable to make 
the increase 4° or 5° more for the sub- 
sequent mashes, and on brewing another 
gyle of the same sort, from the same 
malt, it were best to begin at 165°, and 
then observe these rules for the next 

§ 2. — Time of Infusion. 

If the heat of the liquor be very low, 
the time of infusion should be some- 
what less than that allowed for mild ale. 
Therefore, two, or two and a half hours 
may be allowed for the first mash, and 
one hour for each of the rest. 

^^ 3. — Quantity of Hops, and time of . 

The general rule for hops is one pound 
per bushel of malt ; but if it be intended 
that the ale should retain its mildness to 
a very distant period (which by the bye 
is to answer a very useless purpose), a 
larger portion of hops must be used, 
agreeably to the intention of the brewer. 
"The boiling is regulated by time, as 
the nicety of flavour is not such a re- 
quisite in this as in mild ale. In two 
worts the boiling may be from an hour 
to an hour and a half for the first, and 
two or two and a half hours for the 
second; in three worts, the first may 
boil one hour, the second an hour and 
a half, and the last two or two and a 
half hours. 

§ 4. — Quantity of Yeast, and mode of 

If the first heat of fermentation be not 
below 60°, and the gravity not much 
more than thirty pounds, provided the 
air be -temperate, the quantity of yeast 
must be from two to two and a half 
pounds per barrel, applied in the manner 
as directed for mild ale. If the heat be 
lower, the specific gravity more, or the 
heat of the atmosphere less, the quantity 
of yeast must be increased in propor- 
tion; in doing of which, no great incon- 
venience can arise from applying a few 
pounds too much, but it may occasion 
an imperfect fermentation if there be a* 
few pounds too little. 

The heat of the fermentation should 
not exceed 75° at the highest, but rest 
between that and 70°, though the nearer 
75° the better will be the flavour of the 
ale at an early period ; and as a low heat 
of mashing is conducive to a great in- 
crease in the heat of fermentation, it will 
thence be evident that the fermentation 
for ale, whose average gravity is thirty 
pounds, must begin at or below 60 , 
and the precautions before recom- 
mended respecting the yeast, must be 
particularly attended to. The mode of 
conducting the fermentation, and the 
criterion for cleansing, being the same 
with those directed for mild ale, a re- 
petition here would be superfluous. 

I, however, recommend a more strict, 
adherence to the rules for cleansing, be- 
fore inculcated in this process, than in 
that for mild ale, because the first heat 
being lower, a greater time is necessary 
to bring the fermentation to perfection, 
and secure the future good flavour of 



the ale. It may be here observed that 
this sort will generally require finings. 

Art. III. — For Small Beer. 

If this be made alone, the same rule is 
to be observed in the heat of the mash- 
ing as that recommended for keeping 
ale ; but the time of infusion is some- 
what less. If made after strong ale, as 
there cannot with propriety be more 
than one mash, the heat may be 160° 
or under. 

It is generally boiled at once about 
an hour or an hour and a half, accord- 
ing to the season or the time required 
to keep it ; and it may be observed here, 
that long boiling prevents its fermenting 
so freely as it otherwise would do. 

The quantity of hops must also de- 
pend entirely on the taste of the con- 
sumer, and the time required to keep 
it. When made after mild strong ale, 
there is generally a sufficient quantity 
of hops to prevent the necessity of a 
fresh application, and after keeping ale, 
the quantity is often so large as to 
render it necessary to leave some out 
of it. 

The first heat of fermentation may be 
from 60° to 65°, and, as there is rarely 
any material increase, it may be cleansed 
at the end of 12 to 14 hours, when the 
fermentation is fairly begun ; for if it 
was carried to its utmost period, the 
'beer would be thinner upon the palate, 
and appear not so strong as it would by 
the mode of fermentation here recom- 

About a pound of yeast per barrel 
will be sufficient. 

Art. TV. — For Early hard Ale, or 
a mode of producing premature aci- 
dity ill Ale. 

This is nothing more than the artificial 
introduction of an acid flavour into new 
ale, to suit particular palates, which 
flavour must otherwise have been the 
effect of age. Add to a barrel from one 
to two gallons of common vinegar, or 
rather of ale which has acquired a great 
degree of acid flavour, according to the 
taste of the consumer whose palate is to 
be accommodated. 

This should be done at such a time as 
the ale to be changed has discharged the 
greatest part of the yeast, which may be 
about tvventy-four hours after cleansing, 
"where the heat of fermentation has been 
low, and from twenty-four to thirty- six 
hours where it has been liigh. Some- 

times hops are used as in rackins; of ale. 
In either case the cask must be filled 
nearly full, and stopped down close, 
that a violent internal vinous fermenta- 
tion may ensue, otherwise the union will 
not be perfect, but the distinct flavours 
of both will be discernible. If the com- 
motion within seems to endanger the 
cask by the swelling out of the head» 
&c., a little of the ale may be drawn off 
occasionally, but it is to have no other 

This fermentation will sometimes con- 
tinue for three or four weeks, and when 
it is finished, so that the ale will become 
pure with finings (which it will require^, . 
it will be fit for use. 

Art. V. — Of Racking keeping Alb. 

Whether the ale be racked from vats 
or from one cask to another, it has a 
tendency to grow flat. This may be 
remedied by adding about tv/o quarts o* 
hops to a barrel, as mentioned in rack- 
ing mild ale ; but a better mode is by 
an addition of a sixth to a fourth part 
of new ale taken from the gyle-tun, in a 
state proper for cleansing. In either 
case the cask is to be filled full, and 
stopped down close, with the same pre- 
caution as recommended under the 
article of Early hard ale. I have also 
seen about a quart of good wort (made 
perfectly pure by filtrating through a 
flannel bag) added to a barrel of mild 
ale, which was flat, but also pure, and, 
in a very short time, it produced all the 
livehness of bottled ale, without having 
in the least injured its purity ; but hav- 
ing had little occasion to pursue the 
practice, I give it here as a hint well 
deserving your attention, should you 
ever have occasion to adopt it. 

Art. VI. — For Burton Ale. 

This is made from the palest malt and 
hops ; for, if it be not pale as a straw 
it will not pass with the connoisseurs in 
that article ; and the gravity being so 
very high as thirty-six to forty pounds 
a barrel, makes it a matter of great 
nicetv to get malt sufficiently pale. 

If' the malt be not very good, only- 
one mash must be made for this liquor; 
but if it be good, two mashes may take 
place, adverting still to the great spe- 
cific gravity which ought to be pro- 

The heat of the liquor should be 
185°, or 190°, adding 5» for the second. 



if a second mash be made ; and the time 
of infusion may be the same as that 
mentioned under the article Mild Ale 
in general. 

If only one wort be made, it may be 
boiled an hour and a quarter; if two, 
they may be boiled three-quarters of an 
hour the first, and an hour, or an hour 
and a quarter the second ; remembering 
that long boiling is prejudicial to the 

The quantity of hops must be three- 
quarters of a pound per bushel of malt, 
or more, according to circumstances; 
but the more that are used, though an 
advantage as a preservative, the higher 
will be the colour of the ale. 

The heat of fermentation should not 
much exceed 75°, and as the first 
heat would thence probably be about 
55°, the quantity of yeast, both on ac- 
count of this circumstance, and the 
great weight of the wort, should not be 
less than three pounds per barrel, used 
as is before recommended ; and the rule 
for cleansing is the same as that before 

It is to be racked into clean casks 
(without hops) when nearly pure, and 
the sizes of them are from 32 to 42 or 
43 gallons (called half hogsheads), and 
from 70 to 80 gallons (called hogsheads), 
which are generally hooped with an 
equal number of iron and wooden hoops ; 
the latter are white, flat, or broad bark 
hoops ; a bar is put across each head, 
and the brewer" s initials or name, with 
B or Burton at length, are branded in 
front in letters of about an inch and a 
quarter high ; and the number of gal- 
lons which the cask holds is cut with 
a scribe-iron, just above the cork-hole. 

The bung-hole is not above an inch 
and a quarter diameter, which is stopped 
with a wooden shive or bung, and a 
piece of triangular tin-plate is afterwards 
nailed over it. 

Chapter VI. 
Richardson's Instructions continued. 
Art. VII. — For Porter. 
§ 1. — Heat of the Liquor. 
The heat of the liquor may begin from 
156° to 165°, it being intended to go as 
low as the avoiding acidity in the v^^ort 
will admit of; and, as a large portion of 
the malt in this is brown, the heat of the 
liquor may thence be, with safety, some- 
what lower than in the process of keep- 
ing ale. 
The subsequent heats of the mashes 

are to be increased from 5° to 10° each, 
according to circumstances, thoncrli the 
former is s:enerally sufficient. If, how- 
ever, the ranker earthy parts of the malt 
be desired, in order to heijrhten the fla- 
vour ; or if the taste of the preceding 
wort has been somewhat inclined to 
acidity, then 15° may be added, sup- 
posing a very low beginning. 

§ 2. — Time of Infusion. 
This, on account of the number of 
mashes, need not be more than two 
hours at the first, and one hour for 
each of the rest ; but as the time of 
boiling allows more time between the 
two last mashes than usual, the time of 
infusion may be proportionately long, 
without wasting any. 

^ 3. — Quantity of Hops, and Time of 
It is not, perhaps, so much for the pur- 
pose of preservation as for that of fla- 
vour, that the general practice is to 
use not less than four, and sometimes 
four and a half to five pounds per bar- 
rel for keeping ; though what is termed 
mild or mixing porter, has not more 
than three to three and a half pounds ; 
but since hops have been so very dear, 
these proportions have been so consi- 
derably lessened, that I do not even now 
use more than three and a half pounds 
for keeping. 

The hops required here are to be 
strong, without regard to colour ; and 
for the purposes of extracting all that 
strength, and communicating all its 
rankness, the whole of the worts are 
generally boiled from eight to nine 
itiours in the aggregate ; which may be 
apportioned, in three worts, to one and a 
half, two and a half, and four or five 
hours. If there are four worts, it may 
be one, one and a half, two and a half, 
and three or four hours. 

§ 4. — Mode of Fermentation. 
The heat of fermentation to be so low 
as not to exceed 70° when at the highest, 
so that in general it may begin about 
60° ; and should it be inclined to ^o 
further than 70°, provided the saccharine 
of the malt be not perfectly gone off, the 
event of a degree or two more may be 
waited for, in case the heat of the fer- 
mentation does not increase more than 
half a degree in the hour at that time, 
when it is to be cleansed at all events ; 
otherwise, it might run up so high as 
to induce the flavour of keeping ale 
instead of that fulness which porter 



ought to have. If, when the heat of 
fermentation is at 70°, it is increasing 
more than is above mentioned, I recom- 
mend that the porter be cleansed, lest 
the major part of the yeast subside to 
the bottom of the casks instead of being- 
thrown out, and thence render the por- 
ter foul, and hereafter stubborn, if not 
cloudy. At this period of the fermen- 
tation, though every other rule relative 
to cleansing be dispensed with, yet care 
should be taken that the sweetness of 
the malt be gone off ; and to facilitate 
that end, a greater portion of yeast is to 
be used than is allowable in any other 
beer of the same strength. The quantity 
required is from three to four pounds 
per barrel, used in the usual propor- 
tions, and rousing the wort every two 
hours in the day time, and even during 
cleansing, if practicable, in order to give 
every degree of rankness obtainable from 
the materials. 

In order to heighten the flavour, about 
a quarter to half an ounce of socotrine 
aloes per barrel may be boiled in the 
second wort ; and, for the purpose of 
giving a retentive head, as much salt of 
steel as will lie on a half-crown piece is 
to be added to a barrel, with the finings. 
These effects may, indeed, be increased 
to any desired degree, by increasing the 
quantity ; but it is to be remembered 
that aloes is a powerful purgative, and 
much more than half an ounce per bar- 
rel might discover itself, nor is the salt 
of steel sufficiently wholesome to war- 
rant the use of any large quantity. The 
former of these I now entirely omit, and in 
its place use quassia, in the proportion 
of a pound to twenty barrels of porter, 
or a little less ; and, as a saving, cop- 
peras may be substituted in the place of 
the latter. 

The malt used is generally brown, 
amber, and pale, in equal quantities; 
but it is necessary, in that case, to have 
the former browner than is always to be 
met with ; and the second of a deeper 
tinge ; it may be as well to use brown 
and pale in equal parts, or in such other 
proportions as the colour of the former 
shall indicate to be necessary even to 
two-thirds or more : and, as it is essen- 
tial, both for colour and flavour, to have 
a sufficient portion of brown, an error 
on that side would be much more safe 
than on the other; for the want of 
colour, and consequently of flavour, is 
often a great obstacle to" the reception of 
porter, in a country where its produc- 
lion is novel, by rendering it more like 

ale than is admissible in such a situa- 
tion ; where it is generally expected to 
find in it qualities which, in the known 
produce of London, would not, perhaps, 
be demanded. 

The malt, both brown and amber, are 
dried with wood, either billets or very 
stout faggots ; but this being for the 
sake of flavour only, where there is a 
deficiency of this fuel, the foundation or 
body of the heat may be produced and 
continued with cinders, adding some 

When the porter is worked off, it 
should be started into vats, of any con- 
venient size, from 50 to 500 barrels, 
and racked thence for sending out ; in 
doing which it is preferable to rack the 
whole off at once, that there may be no 
ullage, which is apt to become vapid 
and often sour. It should not be racked 
till on the fret. 

§5. — Of the average Specific Gravity 
requisite for different Ales and Por- 
For Burton ale, as is before intimated, 
the first sort is from forty to forty-two, 
or forty-three ; the second from thirty- 
five to forty ; and a third sort, made 
after the former, is from twenty-eight to 
thirty-two, or thirty-three pounds per 

This latter is the usual gravity for 
common mild strong ale, of the first 
quality ; but the more prevailing weight 
for common ale is from twenty-five to 
twenty-seven ; and even since malt be- 
came so valuable, from twenty-two to 
twenty-four is deemed sufficient ; whilst 
in certain situations twenty to twenty- 
one is thought to be as much as the 
price merits. 

For keeping ale which is similar to. 
the above, only in being longer kept be- 
fore used, the same gravities are re- 

For porter, about eighteen is sufficient 
for the common sort, twenty for what is 
sometimes termed double; twenty-two 
to twenty-three for the first kind of 
brown stout, and twenty-five to twenty- 
six pounds for the very best brown stout. 
The weight for common small beer is 
about six or seven ; and what is deemed 
good table beer, is from twelve to four- 
teen pounds. 

Art. VIII. — Of Returns for saving 

After the usual process of brewing is 
finished, you are to cause one or two 



mashes to be made, according to cir- 
cumstances ; viz. if small beer has been 
made, only one mash is to take place ; 
but where that has not been the case, 
there may be two; for the more the 
malt is exhausted, the greater is the 
saving, and the greater the number of 
mashes, the more fermentable matter is 

If, therefore, no small beer is intended 
to be made, you are to mash for a return 
in the same manner as if small beer was 
to be made, only using as much more 
liquor as is convenient ; taking the heat 
at 1 60° or 165°, letting it infuse an hour 
or more, and then pumping it up into 
the copper, and putting the hops into 
it, but it is only to be just made to boil 
when it is to be turned into the cooler in 
the usual way. During this another 
mash for a second return is to be made, 
taking the heat at 5° lower than the 
first, which return being pumped up into 
the copper, and the hops added to it, it 
may remain in the copper all night at a 
heat nearly boiling, and then be turned 
into the cooler as the former. 

These two returns are to remain in 
the coolers until the evening before the 
next brewing, when they are to be let 
down into the under back and pumped 
into the copper, to serve for the purpose 
of mashing, in the place of so much 
liquor ; and if there be more than suf- 
ficient for 1he first mash, the remainder 
may have as much liquor added to it as 
■will serve for the second. But as the 
return contains a certain portion of 
fermentable matter, that portion is to 
be previously ascertamed, and either an 
additional quantity of liquor is to be 
used in the brewing, or so much malt 
be left out of the grist as the amount of 
that fermentable matter may be. 

To ascertain this, it may be premised 
that the gravity of the wort intended for 
small beer is generally from three to five, 
more or less, and that the wort drawn 
after this (if the quantity be the same 
as that of the wort for small beer) will 
have half, or rather more than half the 
weight of that ; so that supposing the 
gravity of the wort for small beer to 
have been 3.5, the wort intended for a 
return would probably be 2.0; in 
which case, if the volume of the wort 
amount to twenty barrels, the sum 
■would be forty pounds, or upwards of 
half a quarter of malt. On the con- 
trary, if no small beer be made, the 

mash which would have been made for 
that wort must now be made for a first 
return, to which another mash, as above 
mentioned, would produce a second, 
whence the saving would be nearly 
threefold of the one efiected after mak- 
ing small beer; for, supposing twenty 
barrels of the first return at 3.5, the 
aggregate would be seventy pounds, to 
which the second return (as above esti- 
mated) being added, the total would be 
one hundred and ten pounds, or nearly 
one quarter and a half of malt, valued 
at seventy-five pounds per quarter. 

But as this estimate only relates to 
the return in the under back, it is to be 
remembered that an addition would be 
made to the amount, as exhibited in that 
state, by that portion of the preceding 
worts which is imbibed by the hops, and 
which will be extracted and replaced by 
the return into which those hops are 
put ; but this addition can only be ascer- 
tained by actual experiment. Whence 
the net aggregate saving is to be esti- 
mated from the gravity of the return 
taken when cold in the cooler, as includ- 
ing the above-mentioned addition from 
the hops, and not from the return in the 
under back, the aggregate of which will 
be found to fall considerably short of 
that of the return in the coolers, par- 
ticularly where many hops are used. 

There is also some advantage derived 
from the hops having their virtue further 
extracted by this process; but as an, 
estimate of the quantian cannot easily 
be made, it is not taken into the account 
of the saving effected hereby. 

The intervention of a day or two be- 
tween the brewings is no bar to the 
use of a return. Its very humble specific 
gravity is a security against fermenta- 
tion. In summer we sometimes have it 
lie a week ; and, in very warm weather^ 
it will mould a little at the top without 
injuring its taste. I do not, however, 
use it for strong ale in such cases, but 
mash with it for another return, that 
the flavour and purity of the former may 
not be affected by it ; but for porter I 
never hesitate to use it at first, and we 
generally contrive to brew a gyle of the 
latter after one of the former, witli that 

Art. IX. — Of the Brewing Book. 

The following is the plan of my brew- 
ing book :— ^ 














1 Hc. 


«-!» Hj'TI 


Hci He He 





^ t^ t^ 

30 C/J 

00 00 




CO o t>. t^ t^ 



I- 00 


?o o 




— < ift 0» .-1 ,-1 

.s a S 

y 1 s 


w S w 


^-^ 00 C5 




1 ^'^ 




1 -H 





(M "-1 


■"* l^ 





»o w 




^— \ 










1— 1 



























O Tt< CO 













CO cs 





CO (M ^ 








C3 o o 

CO CO -I* 





o o 


CO <M r-H 







H?" He 




1 — 1 


1— 1 









HlCI Hl^ 









C-1 00 .— ' 






O vO O 






^ CO o 


'^ CM -H 






00 o o 




»n -^ 



(M 00 C5 




Ol ifS 

CO .-H 





-f -* ^ 





lO CO 






r-l r-i 





-r Tj< -t 





..n CO 





C-4 r-^ ^ 



' ' 

r-H 1—4 



o »r:> o 




O kO 


l^ t^ 00 








I— 1 1— ( 






CM o" 





f"" t>. 

I— 1 



V— / 


00 ^ 2 




22 ^ '3 

^ X :z 




He Z 




Suppose the Book lyino: open, as in 
the two pages * before us, both of which 
are to be taken across as continued 
lines of the same Table : — 

Cohimn 1, contains the date and 
quality of each brewing as successively 
numbered No. 1, No. 2, &c., from the 
beginning of the year, which is here 
counted from the 1 st of October. The 
two examples are reductions of two of 
my own brewings for twelve quarters. 
Herein 12.8 means December 8th; 
X and T are strong beer and small ; P 
is porter; and the figures 5§.0.6§ de- 
note 5i quarters of brown malt, no 
amber, and 6| quarters of pale. Column 
2 shows the quarters of malt used, and 
col. 3 the pounds: of hops, both of which 
are summed up at the bottom of every 
page, so as to show the quantity used 
at the close of the year. Col. 4 is the 
heats of liquor for each mash; and 
col. 5 is the barrels of liquor. Col. 6 is 
the quantity of worts drawn from each 
mash; col. 7 is the gravity per barrel 
taken in the underback ; and col. 8 is 
the whole weight of fermentable matter, 
deducting one and a half per cent, for 
heat. Col. 9 gives the hours each wort 
is boiled. Col. 10 gives the worts in 
the coolers ; col. 1 1 their gravity ; and 
col. 12 the sum of the gravities multi- 
plied by the quantities. Col. 13 shows 
the pounds of yeast. The double co- 
lumn 14 gives tile first heat of fermen- 
tation, and its increase in the gyle-tun ; 
and col. 15 shows the hours which it 
remains in the tun before cleansing. 
Columns 16, 17, and 18 show the quan- 
tities of strong ale, porter, and table 
beer brewed ; and these, like those of 
the malt and hops, are summed up on 
each page, and carried forward to the 
succeeding one. 

The next column contains minutes of 
the progress of \\\e fermentation. Thus, 
in the first example, 8 Ev, 7 — 74^ shows 
that the yeast was put to the worts, at 
741 degrees of heat, on the 8th of De- 
cember, at 7 o'clock in the evening. Its 
progress through the next day is marked 
in the same manner; and on the 10th, 
at 8 in the morning, the ale appears to 
have been cleansed ; having acquired an 
increase of 11^° of heat in the course of 
thirty-six hours. 

The last column or space is left for 
remarks. Those here inserted signify 

* On two pages in the Manuscript, but here 
printed on one. — Edit. 

U- pound of orange peas, and 2 pounds 
of quassia. 

The figures in column second, marked 
with red ink, [here within parentheses] 
(lio) and (75) is the produce per quarter, 
as shown by the saccharometer. The 
same sort of figures in columns \^, 17, 
and 18 give the weight per barrel of the 
different beers. 

With respect to the high fermentation 
mentioned when speaking of Cambridge 
ale, Mr. Richardson has given no exam- 
ples ; and our practice, in this kind, has 
been so limited, that we can only exhibit 
a single brewing, on the results of which 
we can depend. This was a brewing of 
eight quarters of malt, with forty pounds 
of hops. It immediately followed one 
from which there was a Return of eigh- 
teen barrels, of four pounds specific gra- 
vity, which was made use of for the first 
mash. It was in the month of February, 
and the weather was uncommonly mild. 

Barrels. lbs. 

1st Mash 18 gave 11 at34 = 374 

2d Mash 10 
3d Mash 10 

10-20 = 200 
LO . 10.5 = 105 



Return 16 16-3. =48 

The three worts when boiled produced 
22^ barrels at 29 lbs. per barrel; and 
this with the Return (which infused 
with the hops showed 15 barrels at4lbs. 
per barrel) gave a produce ; on the whole, 
equal to eighty pounds per quarter. 

These 22i barrels were pitched at 78° 
with four gallons of yeast. In thirty- six 
hours the heat rose "to 94°, when it was 
cleansed at 14 lb. gravity. In about a 
fortnight it was pure, and turned out to 
be excellent ale. 

Chapter VII. 

Of the London Brewery. 
While the character of the London ale 
is so low as to be unknown beyond the 
precincts of the metropolis, that of the 
porter remains unrivalled. Tastes are 
acquired by habit, from which cause, 
when in continued action, we get inured 
to the strangest beverage. The immense 
capitals and influence of the ten or 
twelve principal houses defy all compe- 
tition, and whatever malt liquor they 
may agree to designate by the name of 
porter must, eventually, pass current 
with the multitude. This is no random 
assertion ; for it is well known that the 
hquor now retailed under that denomi- 



nation has little or no resemblance to 
what was so called thirty years ago. 
"Whether it is better or worse, or whe- 
ther there can now be any criterion of 
comparison, in that respect, is no part 
of the question. 

"Before the year 1730, the malt 
liquors in general use in London were 
ale, beer, and twopenny, and it was 
customary for the drinkers of malt 
liquor to call for a pint, or tankard, of 
half-and-half, that is, a half of ale and 
half of beer, a half of ale, and half 
of twopenny, or half of beer and half 
of twopenny. In course of time it also 
became the practice to call for a pint, or 
tankard, of three threads, meaning a 
third of ale, of beer, and of twopenny ; 
and thus the publican had the trouble 
to go to three casks, and turn three 
cccks, for a pint of liquor. To avoid 
tliis inconvenience and waste, a brewer 
of the name of Harwood conceived the 
idea of making- a liquor which should 
partake of the same united flavours of 
ale, beer, and twopenny. He did so, 
and succeeded, calling it entire, or 
entire-butt ; and, as it was a very hearty 
and nourishing liquor, it was very suit- 
able ioY porters and other working peo- 
ple : hence it obtained the name of 


It is not to be recorded in honour of 
the chemical arts, but it is nevertheless 
true, that many of the now indispensable 
ingredients and manipulations originated 
in the wish to deceive. It was early 
known that what was then termed the 
fiery nature of newly distilled spirits 
became softened by long keeping, but it 
was found, at the same time, that when, 
as was usually the case, they were kept 
in oak casks, the liquor acquired a 
brown tinge, more or less deep, accord- 
ing to the time of maceration ; and 
hence, with the unobservant purchaser, 
colour was taken for the criterion of 
age. This error, however, is now ex- 
ploded ; and every one knows that rum 
and brandy owe their beauty to artificial 
infusions. In a similar manner, all 
other things alike, ale and beer assume 
a lighter or a deeper dye in proportion 
to the quantity of malt-extract which 
they contain; because malt, however 
carefully dried, always acquires some 
degree of colour from the kiln. Colour, 
therefore, with the many, was long con- 
sidered as indicative of strength. 

The manufacture of fine ales (before 
they were contaminated with hops) was 
intended to imitate the white wines of 

the continent ; and, consequently, in 
those times, the paler the malt the more 
valuable it was, in that respect, to the 
ale-brewer. Nevertheless, when the 
quantity of malt was great, the worts 
were always partially coloured ; and the 
produce being termed " strong or 
mightie ale," induced the public brewer 
to make two beverages from the same 
malt of equal strength but of different 
colours, until at last paleness was gra- 
dually disregarded. In the case of beer, 
which contained numerous ingredients, 
the quality of the malt was less attended 
to. The harvesting of barley was then 
more troublesome than now, and much 
of it was moulded and stained. To hide 
these defects in the malting, it was co- 
loured on the kiln, and hence the early 
manufacture of brown malts, which 
were sold only to make beer. Brown 
malt always smells of the fire ; and this 
empyreumatic flavour, becoming in re- 
quest, was heightened by dr}'ing with 
wood faggots, chiefly beech, because 
that sort of wood was formerly of little 
value. Thus did beer acquire a deep 
colour ; and when hops were introduced, 
and subsequently enforced by legal 
enactments, the bitter principle being 
all that was sought for, the brownness 
of colour and the coarseness of the 
flavour formed no objection to their use. 

When the saccharoraeter was applied 
to the brewery, it was discovered that 
the colouring matter of brown and am- 
ber malts was formed at the expense of 
the saccharum; and this added to the 
knowledge that these sorts of malt were 
made from barley which was unfitted for 
the paler kinds, rendered it desirable to 
find substitutes for flavour and colour 
from other substances. The sale of 
colouring was at first private, but being 
authorized to be made from sugar by 
the 51 Geo. III., it became a trade ; and,, 
under cover of that article, other ingre- 
dients were sometimes introduced which 
were neither legal nor useful. 

In 1816, all ingredients, other than 
malt and hops, were forbidden, and con- 
sequently the manufacture of sugar- 
colouring was discontinued; but in a 
short time after, a patent was taken out 
for the making of colouring by the roast- 
ing of malt : and this colour, being legal, 
is made use of by those brewers who pre- 
fer it to the old mixture of brown and 
amber. When this roasted malt is put 
into the mash-tun, all the rest of the 
malt is pale ; and the proportion of 
black to pale is about one to forty or 



fifty, according to the degree of colour 

Whether it is produced from brown, 
amber or black malt, from burnt sugar 
or burnt molasses, the colouring prin- 
ciple is the same. The flavour, how- 
ever, may be, and, we believe, is, differ- 
ent. In either case the colour is pro- 
duced by the roasting of saccharum; 
but as the whole of the malt is not sac- 
charum, the roasting to blackness mixes 
the colouring part with a large propor- 
tion, probably a half, of common char- 
coal. The charcoal will, no doubt, sub- 
side, but its previous effects are un- 
known, and, accordingly, some of the 
principal brewers have never used black 
malt; and none of them, we believe, 
brew either their keeping porter or 
their brown stout without the admix- 
ture of brown or amber malt. Private 
families may colour and flavour as they 
please ; and we are persuaded that, in 
making porter, they will find the charring 
of sugar the most convenient. For this 
purpose a quantity of brown sugar, 
moistened with water, may be put in a 
frying-pan, the bottom of which should 
be covered to about an inch deep. This 
is then to be roasted on a fire, and 
stirred for some time, until it inflame 
spontaneously. The flame, after it is 
judged (from practice) to have burnt 
long enough, is then extinguished by a 
cover ; and water is added to the pitch- 
like residue until the whole has the con- 
sistence of treacle, when it is put into 
a bottle or can for use. This colouring 
is afterwards to be mixed with the worts 
in the copper in such quantities as are 

Mr. Richardson's instructions for the 
brewing of porter, if literally followed, 
would produce a clean and full-tasted 
liquor ; but they are deficient in some 
particulars, with respect to the after- 
management, especially in the London 
practice. It may be here noticed, by the 
way, that the quassia, or aloes, which 
he recommends cannot be used with 
impunity; and, therefore, the quality 
and quantity of the hops are now more 
strictly attended to than in former times. 
The gravity, too, differs much from his 
example ; for we believe that there is 
seldom any gyle now made of a less 
weight than twenty pounds. We may 
add that the heat of the tun is now less 
attended to. The criterion for cleansing 
is the attenuation ; and when that has 
sunk to ten or eleven pounds, (which is 
usually in less than forty-eight hours) 

the operation is begun. By this time 
the heat is generally about 75°, being 
pitched at G5° ; and a degree of heat, in 
a good fermentation, usually accompa- 
nies a degree of attenuation. 

About five-and-twenty years ago, 
when we first attended to the brewing 
of London porter, it was the practice to 
keep very large stocks of that article for 
twelve or eighteen months ; for the pur- 
pose, as was then thought, of improv- 
ing its quality. The beer was pumped, 
immediately after it was cleansed, into 
store-vats, holding from five to twenty 
gyles (brewings) each. The usual size 
was between four and six thousand 
barrels ; but one, the boast of its brew^ 
house, contained eighteen thousand, and 
was said to have cost ten thousand 
pounds. The porter, during its long 
repose in those vats, became spontane- 
ously fine, and, by a silent fermentation, 
lost the greater part of its remaining 
saccharum. Its bitter, also, grew less 
perceptible, and the liquor was trans- 
formed into good, hard beer. This was 
softened by the pubhcan to the taste of 
the customer, by the addition of such as 
was mild, that is, newly brewed; but 
little of this milder sort was at that time 
required. The taste of the metropolis 
has since undergone a great change ; so 
much so, that more than half of all that 
is brewed is drunk before it is six weeks 
old. The demand for mild beer is still 
increasing ; and we cannot better detail 
its progress, and explain the nature of 
the mixtures of mild and stale, than by 
copying the information given by Mr 
Barclay (of the firm of Barclay, Perkins, 
and Co.) to the Committee of the House 
of Commons, in the year 1818 : — 

" What quantity of beer do you now 
brew annually ?— About 300,000 bar- 

" Is sour or stale beer used in your 
vats with new beer, to your knowledge ? 
— To answer the question correctly, I 
should state, that every publican has 
two sorts of beer sent to him, and he 
orders a proportion of each as he wants 
them ; the one is called mild beer, which 
is beer brewed and sent out exactly as 
it is brewed ; the other is called entire^ 
and that beer consists of some brewed 
expressly for the purpose of keeping : it 
likewise contains a proportion of returns 
from publicans ; likewise the beer which 
we receive from public-houses, which 
has been brewed by other brewers, and 
which have changed into our trade (as 
it is our plan alwavs to clear the cellar 
E 2 



of a publican before be be^^nns to draw 
our beer) ; and likewise a portion of the 
beer the bottoms of vats ; the beer that 
is drawn off from the pipes which con- 
vey the beer from one vat to another, 
and from one part of the premises to 
another ; this beer is collected and put 
into vats : it also contai-ns a certain por- 
tion of brown stout, which is twenty 
shillings a barrel dearer than common 
beer: it also contahis some bottling 
beer, which is ten shillings a barrel dearer, 
I should observe, that the beer returned 
from the publican is always examined 
by a class of clerks called coopers, and, 
as far as they can possibly judge, if there 
is any admixture of any kind or sort, if 
it has been weakened, it is put aside, and 
in some instances been thrown away, 
and the person not allowed for it ; but, 
in general, there is an examination made 
of the beer upon being returned. Now 
all these beers united are put into vats ; 
f.nd it depends upon various circum- 
stances how long they may remain in 
those vats before they become perfectly 
Lright; when it becomes bright it is 
f ent out to the publicans for their e7itire 
beer, and there is sometimes a small 
quantity of mild beer mixed with it. 

" Do you ever buy sour or stale beer 
of any other persons than the publicans 
whom you serve ? — The Committee will 
cbserve by my preceding answer that 
the publicans require a certain quantity 
of this stale beer, which they mix with 
the mild beer, accordin-g to the taste of 
their customers, some preferring it new, 
f.nd some older ; but I should observe, 
that the taste of the town is continually 
changing, so that now they use but very 
Lttle of this entire beer ; and if the trade 
cf a brewer increases very rapidly, he 
rcay not have sufficient stale beer of his 
own to send to his publicans, and that 
was the case with our house some years 
J^ack; and I believe since, in two or 
three instances. Upon those occasions 
we have bought stale beer of other 
brewers, but in doing that we have been 
extremely careful in selecting only that 
of the best quality. 

" Is that stale beer ^oz^r beer ? — That 
beer has not got the acetous fermenta- 
tion upon it ; if it had it would not be 
fit for use. It is what is commonly 
vcalled hard beer. 

"You have stated that there are a 
number of beers mixed together ; have 
you any fixed proportion in that mix- 
ture ? — It is the remnants of everytliing ; 
and I have described to the Committee 

what it consists of, and that a part of 
those remnants are of a very superior 
quality, particularly when they come to 
the bottom of the brown stout. 

" What proportion of the whole num- 
ber of barrels sent out would those rem- 
nants form ? — About one tenth: we 
send out about one tenth of entire, but 
that is not consisting of remnants, be- 
cause, I believe I stated before, that part 
of it is beer brewed and kept for that 

" What proportion might the rem- 
nants form of the whole 300,000 bar- 
rels? — Our return is about 10,000 bar- 
rels a year, which includes beer brewed 
by other brewers, and which have been 
taken of publicans who have come into 
our trade, a good deal of which is mild 

" Is the beer that is composed of rem- 
nants wholesome and good liquor? — 
Perfectly so. 

" Is it absolutely necessary that a 
publican should have some of these 
remnants to mix it for the taste of his 
customers ? — I should think so. It has 
been the constant practice as long as I 
have known the trade ; and in former 
years they used to draw more of that 
entire than they do now. 

" Is not that hard or stale beer mixed 
to give the porter the appearance of age 
at once, which formerly was allowed to 
be matured by time ? — It must have the 
effect of making the beer taste older ; 
but I should think that the beer which 
was formerly kept a twelvemonth would, 
not be drank by the public ; their taste 
is for mild beer. 

"Does the use of stale beer effect a 
quick sale in the trade, and conse- 
quently a quicker return ? — I do not see 
how the publican could well please his 
customers unless he had the means of 
making his beer either stale or mild as 
they wish for it. The Committee wiU 
see that if the brewer had not this vent 
for selling his return-beer, the price of 
beer must be considerably higher if he is 
to throw this beer away, which amounts 
altogether to near 20,000 barrels in our 
house alone." 

Chapter VIII. 
Of Scotch Ale. 

The distinguishing characteristics of 
Scotch ale, are paleness of colour, and 
mildness of flavour. The taste of the 
hop never predominates, neither in its 
stead do we discover that of any other 



ingredient. It is perhaps more near 
to the French pale wines, than any of 
the other ales that are brewed in this 
country. Like them, too, it is the result 
of a lengthened fermentation. 

The low heat at which the tun is 
pitched, confines the brewing of Scotch 
ale to the colder part of the year. Dur- 
ing four or five of the summer months, 
the work (except perhaps in some houses 
for table beer) is completely at a stand, 
the utensils are hmed down, and the 
greater part of the workmen discharged. 
No strong ale is either brewed or de- 

The Edinburgh brewer is particularly 
nice in the choice of his malt and hops. 
The former is generally either Enghsh, 
or of his own making from English 
barley; and the latter Farnham, the 
finest East Kent, or a mixture of both. 
The yeast (or store, as it is termed) is 
carefully preserved, and measured into 
the gyle-tun, in the proportion of about 
three gallons to twenty barrels of wort. 

The Scotch practice is to take only 
one mash, and that pretty stiff, for 
strong ale, making up the quantity of 
wort {length) by eight or ten subsequent 
sprinklings of liquor over the goods, 
which are termed Sparges. These 
sparges trickle successively through the 
goods, and wash out as much more of 
the saccharine from the mash, as may 
suffice for the intended strength of the 
ale. In this manner, specific gravities 
may be obtained much higher than 
could be done by a second mash, which 
always requires a certain portion of 
liquor before the goods can be made 
sufficiently fluid. If we suppose this 
necessary portion of liquid in a particu- 
lar mash to be fifteen barrels, it would 
be found, on trial, that these fifteen 
barrels, when drawn from the mash- 
tun, would not contain nearly so much 
saccharine matter as might have been 
extracted by ten successive sparges of 
a barrel each. The reason of this will 
be obvious, if we recollect that the grains 
always remain wetted with wort equi- 
valent in strength to that of the wort 
last drawn off, and that the quantity 
remaining on the goods is about three- 
fourths of a barrel to a quarter of malt. 
The gravity of this imbibed wort will, in 
the one case, be equal to that of the 
second mash ; but in the other, will be 
reduced to that of the tenth sparge, or 
washing. Mr. Richardson, so often 
quoted, condemns this practice ; but, in 
doing so, we know that he labours 

under a mistake. " What power," says 
he, " or what time, has a fluid to ex- 
tract, which is sprinkled over the sur- 
face of the materials, and immediately 
trickles out below, without being allowed 
a stationary moment for infusion 9" 
We answer, that in malt (and it is only 
of malt brewings that we now speak) 
the infusion, if properly conducted, is 
finished with the first mash ; and that 
nothing more is necessary than to draw 
out from the goods, in a pure state, that 
saccharine matter which the first in- 
fusion has set free. But the question, 
with us does not depend on theory. We 
have brewed strong ale for years, with- 
out following it either with table beer or 
returns, and we have, in all cases, drawn 
as much from the malt as we could have, 
done by repeated mashings. The only 
objection to the sparging system is the 
loss of time. 

The first part of the process is to 
mash with liquor heated tol 80° at least,* 
and generally to 190°, varying with the 
dampness of the malt. According to 
Dr. Thomson, the best brewers take the 
lower heats, but this is doubtful. After 
mashing from twenty minutes to half an 
hour, that is, until every particle of the 
malt is in contact with the liquor, the 
tun is covered, and the whole allowed 
to infuse about three hours, when it is. 
drained off into the under back, or (what 
is far better) into the wort copper. 

After the first wort is run off, a 
quantity of liquor (generally a barrel),, 
at the heat of 180=, is sprinkled equally 
over the surface of the goods. To pre- 
vent the liquor from dashing on one 
part, it is usually received upon a cir- 
cular board, about three feet diameter, 
which is swung over the centre of the 
mash-tun ; and, being perforated with 
small holes, allows the water to descend 
in a shower. The board being hung on 
cords, is moveable by the hand over 
every part of the surface of the tun. 
When, as generally happens, the cock 
of the Hqiior-copper is not high enough 
to carry the hquor to the board, a. 
separate cock is inserted in the side for 
that use only. Other means may be 
adopted to answer this purpose of 
sprinkling, the object being to spread 
the Uquor, equably, in a shower over 
the whole surface of the goods, as if 
from the rose of a watering-pan. 

When the barrel (or other quantity> 

* It is here to be observed that we merely reeord 
the practice ; not our own opinion of its propriety. 



of liquor is thus let in upon the goods, the 
cock of the mash-tun is opened, so as 
to let it off, as in the case of an ordinary 
mash. Some brewers, instead of the 
common outlet of the mash-tun, have 
three or four small cocks inserted in 
different parts of the bottom, from the 
fear that a single cock might draw the 
filtrating liquor to one point, and there- 
by create a crack in the goods, instead 
of leaving the whole of the liquor to 
descend in one horizontal stratum. 

When the first sparge is run off, or 
nearly so, which may be in twenty or 
five and twenty minutes, another of 
equal quantity is put on the goods, in 
the same manner, and thus, successively, 
until the whole of the sparges, when 
mixed with the first mash worts, show 
that gravity which is desired. The 
strong ale worts are then completed, 
and a mash is made to search the goods 
either for table beer, or a return, as the 
trade requires. This mash, however, is 
not necessary as a saving of extract ; for 
the whole of the saccharine matter of the 
malt may be exhausted, as well as any 
required gravity of wort produced, by 
means of sparges alone ; but there is an 
opinion, probably not ill founded, that 
the last weak extracts are less fitted for 
fine ale. The making up of strengths 
from the coolers formerly explained, is 
here anticipated, being regulated by the 
saccharometer in the under back, or 
wort-copper ; for practice soon teaches 
the increase that is produced by the 
boiling. It may be here noticed, that 
after the first sparge at 180°, it is cus- 
tomary with some brewers to reduce the 
others gradaally, so that the last is per- 
haps 175° or 170°. 

All rankness of flavour being care- 
fully avoided in this species of ale, the 
quantity of hops seldom exceeds four 
pounds to the quarter of malt ; and the 
bitter thus created being too slight to 
cover the taste of ruder ingredients, we 
believe tha-t the Edinburgh brewers have 
been less the prey of travelling druggists 
than their brethren of the south. A 
little honey to add to the sweet, and a 
few coriander seeds or other aromatics 
to assist the flavour, are, as far as we 
have learnt, the amount of the sins of 
which they have been accused. 

The manner of boiling the worts does 
not differ from the directions of Mr. 
Richardson; but when they arrive at 
the gyle-tun, the process of brewing is 
no longer the same. The first heat of 
fermentation, in the Scotch method, is as 

low as possible, consistent with the 
action. The favourite heat is 50°, a 
point at which chemists have generally 
asserted that the vinous fermentation 
could not exist, but 45° and 46° are by 
no means uncommon in the manuscript 
brewing-books that now lie before us. 
Even in the coldest weather, the lowness 
of heat is not to be feared, provided the 
brewery be in full work. The fermen- 
tation sometimes continues for three 
weeks, and a fortnight would be a 
pretty fair average. "Were the brew- 
ings made three times a week, seven 
or eight working-tuns would thus be 
generally in play ; and these being in 
the same room, some of them at 12 or 
15° of increased heat, would create an 
atmosphere for themselves. 

The quantity of yeast formerly men- 
tioned is generally sufficient, but, in 
some cases, an addition is made a day 
or two after, if, in the judgment of the 
brewer, it appears necessary. The least 
quantity that will carry forward the fer- 
mentation to the required point is al- 
ways preferred ; and, to assure that 
purpose, the tun is roused twice a day 
(morning and evening) to prevent its 
becoming too languid. This rousing is 
continued until the ale is nearly ready 
for cleansing. 

The rule for cleansing differs from 
that given by Mr. Richardson. It is an 
application of his saccharometer, of 
which he himself was not aware. The 
attenuation is attended to daily, and, 
towards the close of the operation, 
twice a day. While the heat is increas- 
ing, the attenuation proceeds ; that is, 
the weight of the worts continues to 
diminish. After a certain time, the heat 
has reached its highest point, and be- 
gins to lessen. It is here that we are 
directed by Mr. Richardson to trust , to 
the smell ; but this smell merely informs 
us that carbonic acid continues to be 
evolved, and the same circumstance is, 
in consequence, indicated by the sac- 
charometer : for as long as any such 
evolution of gas exists, so long will the 
weight of the worts continue to diminish. 
When the progress of the attenuation is 
so slow as not to exceed half a pound 
in twenty-four hours, it is prudent to 
cleanse, especially if the attenuation is 
already low; for it might otherwise 
happen, that the gas being too weak to 
buoy up the now close head of the tun, 
the yeast might partially or wholly sub- 
side, and the ale would become yeast- 
bitten : it would receive that disagree- 



able taste which the head had acquired 
by too long exposure to the atmos- 
pheric air. 

When the ale is cleansed, the head, 
which has not been disturbed for two or 
three days, continues to float on the sur- 
face, till the whole of the then nearly 
pure liquid is drawn off into the casks ; 
and this is considered as a preservative 
against the admission of the atmospheric 
air: for the Scotch do not skim their 
tuns as the London ale brewers so gene- 
rally do. The ale thus cleansed does 
not require to be placed on close stil- 
lions. It throws oft' little or no yeast, 
and a tub placed so as to catch any 
little overflow of the scum that arises 
is quite sufficient. The fermentation is 
almost finished in the tun ; and it is not 
the wish of the brewer that it should 
proceed much farther. 

The strength of Scotch ale, when it 
deserves the name, ranges between 
thirty-two and forty-four pounds weight 
to the imperial barrel, that is, of a specific 
gravity between 1089 and 1122, accord- 
ing to the price at which it is meant to 

be sold. The general mode of charge is 
by the hogshead (about a barrel and a 
half), for which five pounds, six pounds, 
seven pounds, or eight pounds are paid, 
as the quality may warrant ; the strength 
for every additional pound of price being 
increased by about four pounds per 
barrel of weight. 

In a good fermentation, there seldom 
remains above a fourth of the original 
weight of the wort at the period of cleans- 
ing. Between that and a third is the 
usual attenuation. If above a third re- 
mains, the taste is generally mawkish, 
and it is to be feared that the acetous 
fermentation will commence, before the 
time in which the ale might be expected 
to improve. Of the less sensible pro- 
cess of attenuation which goes on after- 
wards in the casks, we have already 
spoken when treating generally of the 
"Vinous fermentation." Scotch ale 
soon becomes fine, and is seldom racked, 
at least for the home market. 

We shall now transcribe the notes of 
a few actual brewings, in order to illus- 
trate the rules above written. 

No. 47. March 10th, 18 — . Mashed for Strong Ale 
13 Bolls {about 10 quarters) of Malt, T. L.*— 42 lbs. Hops, East Kent. 






7 o'clock Worts in Coolers. 

18i Barrels X. Gravity 36 = 666 

6 T. 10 = 60 









Set tap 




10) 726 










Lbs. weight extracted per quarter 72.6 


Mar. 11. M.S. Pitched at 50°. Yeast 3 Gals. 

Heat. Gravity. 







Mar. 12 50" 36 










15 52 33 

16 54 30 

17 56 26 

18 58 23 







19 60 20 







20 62 17 



Set tap. 

.11 in ( 




Fable Be 




21 63 15 

22 62 13^ 

23 62 11^ 

24 61 10^ 

25 61 10^ 




Ilopper, Ale. 

26 60 9^ cleansed 
with salt and flour. 

* The initial letters of the Maltster's name. 



No. 49. March 16th, 18— . Strong Ale. 
13 Bolls {about 10 quarters) Malt, T. L.— 44 lbs. Hops, Farnham and Kent. 






8 o'clock Worts in Coolers. 
17 Barrels X. Gravity 40 = 680 






: 7 T. 11 77 



Set tap 




10) 757 










Lbs. weight extracted per quarter 75 . 7 












Mar. 17. M. 5. Pitched at 46° with 3-1 gal. yst. 
Heat. Gravity. 






18 48« .36 






20 51 32 






22 53 30 





23 54 28 

24 56 26 






25 56^ 24 

26 57i 20 



All in Copper. 
Mashed for T. 

27 60 18 

28 61 16 




29 62 14^ 

30 62 13 



Set tap 



31 61 12 



Cast Copper 


Apr. 1 60 11.7 cleansed. 

No. 50. March 23rd, 18—. Strong Ale. 
2 Quarters English Malt, E. G.— 58 lbs. East Kent Hops. 







Set tap 




































All in Copper. 

Mashed for a 




Cast Copper Ale. 


into ( 
th the 

Dopper a 


March 24, morning, 4 Worts in Tun. 
20i Barrels X. Gravity 42.5 = 860.6 
20 Barrels i?e/wm, Grav. 6.1 = 122 

12) 982.6 

lbs. weight extracted per quarter 81 .8 


Mar. 25 



Gravi ty. 



Mar. 24 M. 4 pitched at 51° 




Yeast 4 Gals 




29 added 1 lb. yeast, 






14.5 cleansed. 



It may be observed, with respect to 
Ihe left-hand portion of these tabular 
statements, that the gravities are taken 
as averages to direct the brewer in the 
number of his sparges, and are not 
minutely correct. The weights are those 
of worts, warm as they issue from the 
mash-tun ; and, even in those small 
sparges, it would make some difference 
if taken from the former or the latter 
part of each running. The sparges 
themselves, too, may not be made with 
extreme nicety with regard to the quan- 
tity. The whole of the process, how- 
ever, is easily acquired by practice, with- 
out which, in the manipulations of the 
arts, science is of little avail. 

Chapter IX. 

Of Scotch Twopenny. 

At and previous to the beginning of the 
^eighteenth century, every publican in 
Scotland (being every man who chose to 
embark in the trade) brewed his own 
ale ; and the resort to his house de- 
pended on the quality of his liquor; 
which, when thunder or witchcraft did 
not interfere, was generally excellent. 
The strong ale was reserved for holidays 
and the tables of the great ; but the two- 
penny (so called because it was sold at 
twopence the Scotch pint*) was so much 
esteemed as a national beverage, that it 
was inserted by name, and guarded by 
peculiar privileges, in one of the Articles 
of the Union. Another Article, how- 
ever, in the same Act, secured to the 
^cottish brewery an Exchequer Court ; 
and this, conjoined with the enormously 
increased malt duties, so lessened the 
exhilarating qualities of this ancient ale, 
that it has now lost its fame. In its 
stead, a kind of small drink is brewed ; 
but it is destitute of all the qualities 
which were so often celebrated in Scot- 
tish song, and is scarcely superior to 
the trash termed table-beer in the work- 
houses of the metropolis. 

"When the Scotch twopenny was the 
boast of the nation, saccharometers were 
unknown, and thermometers had not 
been heard of by the brewer. He shaped 
his course by habit, and with surprising 
accuracy, as blind men are often known 
to do. When we first knew the article 
it had much degenerated ; but even then 
it must have weiofhed from fourteen to 

* The old ale pint was nearly two English 

sixteen pounds per barrel, as far as we 
could judge from the lengths which they 
drew. The quantity of hops seldom 
exceeded two pounds and a-half to the 
boll of malt, or about three pounds to a 
quarter. This was forty years ago, 
and the old tapsters were then ac- 
customed to tell tales of how they 
managed to brew ale without hops irt 
their youth. 

The boiled worts were usually cast 
into what were then called half-barrel 
casks, for few had coolers * ; and the 
gyle-tun (which was often the mash-tun- 
also) was first started, or pitched, at 
about blood heat. This was done with 
a single half barrel, or less, for the pur- 
pose of chipping the worts ; and the tun 
was aftei-wards filled up, by half-barrels 
at a time, when they had cooled to the 
requisite degree. The heat of the fer- 
mentation was regulated by the appear- 
ance of the yeasty head, and great care 
was taken that it should neither be 
scalded nor chilled. When the smell of 
the tun became strong, the ale was 
cleansed into half-barrels, and dis- 
charged its yeast into tubs. But the- 
whole brewing was never so fermented ; 
for a great part, often one half, was 
preserved (in the casks in which it had 
been thrown from the copper) in the 
state of worts. 

On reading this account of turning the 
worts boiling hot into the casks, and 
allowing them to remain there for seve- 
ral days, the modern brewer will im- 
mediately exclaim that the ale must 
have hQenfoxed,\di term which he gives 
to an incipient stage of putrefaction, 
which is supposed to be attended with 
a smell like that of the animal whose 
name it bears. We can assure him, 
however, that this accident was very 
rare, although it would probably be an 
inevitable consequence of the same 
practice in many other breweries. Th.e 
great preventive was cleanliness. The 
casks were repeatedly washed and 
steamed with hot water before every 
brewing ; and, in order that not a speck 
of dirt should be left, the bungholes were 
cut square, and large enough to allow 
the brewer to put in his arm, and scour 
them completely with a heather rinse. 
The large size of the holes, as well as 
the highly fermenting state of the liquor, 
rendered it inconvenient to use corks ; 
and, therefore, when the ale was sent 

• They held about sixteen English ale gallons. 



out in casks, it was kept in the barrels 
by means of covers made of clay. " It 
is in allusion to this practice that Shak- 
speare speaks of tracin<r the dust of 
Alexander till it be found stopping a 
bunefhole." * 

After that part of the ale which was 
cleansed had discharged the greater por- 
tion of its yeast, a pailfull was drawn 
from every cask, into other casks, and 
the vacancy in each was replaced by a 
pailfull of the reserved wort. The fer- 
mentation was thereby renewed, and the 
operation was repeated once a day until 
all the reserved worts were expended ; 
and those were so proportioned as to 
keep the fermentation alive until the 
succeeding brewing. This operation was 
called handling ; and it was in this 
slowly fermenting state that the ale was 
sent out to the customers, in casks, or 
sold in flaggons. We have seen ale 
preserved, by this means, for nearly a 
fortnight, in summer weather, without 
the least perceptible tendency to acidity. 
Ale, in Scotland, whether strong or 
weak, was always bottled. In the kind 
of which we now speak, the cask was 
allowed to be undisturbed, before draw- 
ing off, for twenty-four hours, or per- 
haps twice that period, according to the 
length of time which it was to remain 
in the bottles before ripening. It was 
generally expected to be very brisk in 
the course of a week. 

With respect to unlawful ingredients, 
we have already said that the Scotch 
are less to be complained of than their 
brethren of the South. The legislature, 
however, has, it seems, always thought 
otherwise; for, in addition to the caveats 
which are addressed to the whole island, 
there are some which are peculiarly 
directed against the brewers of Scotland. 
The following extraordinary prohibition, 
for example, is still in the Statute Book, 
and is regularly promulgated under the 
authority of the Excise : — 

^ In Scotland.— By the Act Will, 
Pari. 1. Sess. 6. c. 43. no salt shall be 
made use of in brewing beer or ale, whe- 
ther in washing and seasoning of ves- 
sels, or any other way whatever, under 
pain of confiscation of looms and vessels, 
with the hquor found therein, attour the 
loss of his freedom, if the transgressor 
be a burgess, and the being incapable to 

• Booth's Analytical Dictionary of the English 

use the trade of brewing thereafter. The 
looms and vessels shall be given to the 
informer, who shall be free from the said 
penalty, albeit he have been a servant or 

To prevent ale or beer iromfoxingy 
we are convinced that no cleansing ma- 
terial could be better than salt. 

Chapter X. 

Of Burton Ale. 

We have formerly given Mr. Richard- 
son's instructions for the brewing of this 
liquor ; but we acknowledge that we have 
never been able to produce the flavour 
and permanent sweetness of Burton ale 
by following that gentleman's directions. 
The indiscriminate prohibitions of the 
Excise rise up before us, as they proba- 
bly did before Mr. Richardson. They 
may have arrested his pen; but they 
shall not ours. We write not for the 
common brewer, but for the private 
gentleman, whose operations are unfet- 
tered. We will not say that the plan 
which we shall here point out is followed 
by the brewers at Burton, but we know 
that ale very like to theirs, in all re- 
spects, has been the result of this pro- 

Two ounces of salt of steel, dried until 
it becomes white, is infused mto twenty 
barrels of liquor before mashing, that 
quantity of liquor being usually allowed 
for the first mash of ten quarters of 
malt. The use of this small portion of 
salt of steel is supposed to assist the 
extract ; but we think that it has, more 
probably, been introduced to catch any 
incipient dose of oxygen which might 
favour the production of acidity. Its 
value may be questioned ; but this 
small proportion, at any rate, is harm- 

Twenty barrels of this liquor is then 
turned upon the ten quarters of malt, 
in the ordinary way, upwards, through 
the false bottom. The heat is between 
165° and 170°,— generally nearer the 
former. The mashing is continued 
about an hour, after which it is al- 
lowed to infuse about an hour and a 
half longer; the goods being covered 
with a sack of dry malt to preserve the 

When the first mash is run off, from 
ten to fifteen barrels of liquor (accord- 
ing to the proposed strength) is run 
over the goods at the heat of 185°. This 


is allowed to infuse two hours, when it 
will have sunk and mixed with the goods, 
without having been mashed. This 
differs from the Scotch practice by mak- 
ing up the length with one, in place of 
many sparges. Practice enables the 
brewer to fix the quantity of this 
second liquor ; but he runs some risk 
of error in untried malts, while the 
Scotch brewer is always safe by weigh- 
ing the wort in separate and successive 

This second liquor being run off, the 
strong ale worts are all extracted ; and 
table beer, or a return, is made to ex- 
haust the goods. It is usual, in the 
case of table beer, to cap the goods with 
a quantity of dry malt, which is under- 
stood to be necessary in order to pro- 
cure the requisite strength. We believe 
that this practice (of which we do not 
approve) originated from a different 
cause. There was a time when the Excise 
objected io party -gyles, that is, to making 
two kinds of beer from the same malt ; 
the cappi?ig was introduced to make 
(formally) a separate brewing, and was 
continued from the influence of custom. 
The least quantity of capping answered 
the purpose, so that it covered the goods, 
the strength being regulated by the 
quantity of liquor in the table-beer mash. 
This mash is generally made at 150° of 
heat, and allowed to stand about an 
hour: — but we return to the strong 

The quantity of hops is usually about 
six pounds to the quarter of malt, and 
the time of boiling from two to two and 
a half hours. From ten to fifteen mi- 
nutes before turning off, a quantity of 
honey, at least equivalent to a pound 
per barrel, is put into the copper The 
honey is previously dissolved in scalding- 
hot liquor. 

With respect to the fermentation, the 
tun is pitched at sixty-four or sixty- five 
degrees, with a pound of solid yeast per 
barrel. The first head is skimmed to 
rid the wort of the impurities which 
usually float upon the surface. After 
this the tun is generally kept covered, 
except when it is roused, which it is, 
twice or thrice a day. In from forty- 
eight to sixty hours it ought to rise to 
eighty degrees, or more ; and when the 

gravity is about twelve pounds, it is 
usual to put half a gallon of bean flour 
and four ounces of sal prunella, previ- 
ously well roused together in a portion 
of the worts, to every twenty barrels. 
The whole is then cleansed into barrels, 
which are filled up every two hours until 
they cease to discharge any yeast. 
Should the fermenting tun fall in heat, 
some recommend that two ounces and 
a half of jalap should be added for every 
twenty barrels of the wort. 

Immediately after the casks have 
ceased workins:, six ounces of unburnt, 
but bruised, sulphate of lime, mixed up 
with an ounce of powdered black rosin, 
(both previously whisked in a small 
quantity of the ale,) are put into each 
barrel. Over this a small handful of 
half-boiled hops is also inserted ; and 
the cask, being then quite full, is closely 
bunged up, having a gimlet hole, closed 
with a peg, at the side of the bung-hole, 
as an occasional vent for the escape of 
the carbonic acid which may afterwards 
be generated. The rosin and hops pre- 
clude the access of atmospheric air; and 
the sulphate of hme, which in a short 
time disappears, is said to prevent any 
secondary fermentation,— the usual fore- 
runner of acidity. The honey is also 
understood to ward off the acid fermen- 
tation. Honey and water, especially 
when boiled, does not readily complete 
its attenuation, and hence it is supposed 
to answer all the preservative purposes 
of hops in the beer of Lou vain. 

The strength of the Burton, like that 
of every other species of ale, varies with 
the price. The qualities are seldom 
more than two ; the one weighing from 
30 to 32 pounds per barrel, and the 
other somewhere between 35 and 40, 
differing in the several brewhouses and 
with the demands of their customers. 
The latter, however, is accounted a 
maximum strength, and exceeded only 
in rare instances. Below 28 pounds the 
preservative quality, so peculiar to this 
sort of ale, is not to be depended on. 
The charge is usually by the gallon, 
because the sizes of their casks are 

The following are notes of a brew- 
ing conducted according to the preced- 
ing directions : — 



April 27th, 18 — . Mashed for Burton Ale. 
Malt 6 quarters. — Hopx 3(ilbs. — Honey 20lbs. — S. Steel 2oz^ 





Li (J. 




April 28, M. 8. Worts in Tun. 







Set tap. 



12 Barrels X. Gravity 34.8 = 417.6 








10 Barrels Return in Copper, 

Gravity 6.2 = 62 

Run on. 






Set tap. 



6) 479.6 



In Copper. 






Extract Gravity per Qr. = 79.9 
Fermeniaiion. Yeast 10 lb. 


Mashed for 



Heat. Gravity. 
April 28 66 34.8 







Morning 29 70 28 

30 75 20 


Cast Copper. 


Evening 10 80 14 cleansed. 



ops in Copp( 


In two days the ale had ceased throw- 
ing off yeast; and when it had stood two 
days more with occasional fillings, it was 
bunged up, after receiving a handful of 
half- spent hops, &c. as in the directions. 
This ale was kept through the summer ; 
and, in the following September, it had 
become quite pure, and was bottled at a 
gravity of six pounds. In a month after- 
wards it became pretty ripe, and was well 

Chapter XI. 
Of Small Brewings. 

Although it is our wish that the Art 
of Brewing should be understood in 
every family of the kingdom, it, never- 
theless, in its simplest form, requires 
manipulations that cannot be communi- 
cated in a few detached sentences, like 
the receipts of a cookery book. A cer- 
tain degree of practice, however small, 
is necessary before general directions 
can be of any value ; and, notwithstand- 
ing that we have endeavoured to be ex- 
tremely plain, we fear that our observa- 
tions would scarcely be understood by 
one who never saw a mash-tun, nor wit- 
nessed the production of a malt extract. 
It is, therefore, only to such as have 
already been present at private brewings, 
however well or ill conducted, that we 
are enabled to address ourselves ; and 
to those persons we would recommend 
the attentive perusal of what we have 

already written, before they place their 
confidence in the succeeding examples. 
For those families whose consump- 
tion requires, and whose means enable 
them, to brew two or three quarters at 
a time, our instructions may be simpli- 
fied. Let them take any of the examples 
already given (according with the sort 
of beer, or ale, which they want) and di- 
minish the measure of liquor in the 
mash, and the weight of the hops, as 
there specified, in proportion to th^ 
quantity of the malt which it is intended 
to brew. It would be well to keep to the 
same time of infusion ; but, in that case, 
the heats of the mashing liquor should 
be four or five degrees higher ; because, 
in small brewings, the mash-tun is apt to 
become so cool as to risk acidity in the 
worts. A like observation may be given 
respecting the fermentation. It must 
begin higher by five or six degrees ; and 
it will be discovered, that under no cir- 
cumstances will the heat of the tun rise 
so far above its first pitch as it usually 
does in large gyles. The criterion for 
cleansing and the previous proper atte- 
nuation to be aimed at are the same. 
In the case of porter, it will be more 
convenient to use pale malt, and give. 
the colour (and consequent flavour) by 
means of sugar, burnt as directed at 
page 51. The aloes or quassia, which 
may be here used with impunity, will not 
only be a saving, but will be preferable to 
giving the whole of the bitter with hops. 



In makinsj sfrono: ale, the private 
brewer is generally obliged to use more 
malt than he otherwise would ; because, 
having no means of taking the advan- 
tage oid. Return, he must make a quan- 
tity of small beer, whether it is wanted 
or not, for the purpose of searching the 
grains. In such a case, either the 
Scotch or the Burton system would be 
the best. His worts might thereby be 
made sufficiently strong without any 
loss of extract, and might be divided, as 
they passed from the tun, into any re- 
quisite strengths; either making the 
whole strong ale, or a part of it table 
teer, in such proportions as might be 
found convenient. The saccharometer 
-would form the best assistant ; and it 
-would be extremely advantageous to 
quality and flavour, as well as to pre- 
servation, that the potency of the ale 
should be increased by the addition of 
honey. The quantity of this ingredient 
is to be regulated solely by taste ; the 
mixture forming the link between Malt 
Liquor and Mead. 

The history of the last-mentioned ar- 
ticle is evidence of the baneful effects of 
the excise upon manufactures. The 
duties upon Mead were increased, from 
time to time, until it could no longer be 
made for sale. The duties, prohibitions, 
and penalties, still remain in the Statute 
Book ; but we do not know that there 
now exists a single person liable to 
their inflictions. It is melancholy to 
Bee its expiring effort, in the excise ac- 
counts for 1808:— "The gross actual 
receipt in money" for duties on Metheg- 
lin, or Mead, during the whole year, 
is there stated to have been " one 
pound eleven shillings and six-pence," 
The quantity, on which this duty was 
charged, could not have exceeded twen- 
ty-one wine gallons; and the maker 
must have paid, besides, two pounds for 
a license. It might be supposed that 
these prohibitory duties, upon the ma- 
nufacturer for sale, must be advanta- 
geous to private families who pay 
nothing ; but in the present instance it 
is otherwise. Good mead cannot be 
brewed, even without duty, at less than 
five shillings a gallon, being equivalent 
to a shilling the wine bottle. It requires 
to be made in quantities of ten gallons 
at least, and is seldom fit for bottling in 
less time than a twelvemonth. With 
this outlay and care it once rivalled the 
wines of France, but the rich are con- 
tented with the latter, for which they 
are able to pay ; while the poorer classes. 

who, on occasional merry-makings, or 
in sickness, might prefer it to a bottle of 
adulterated port, can purchase it no- 
where, and are unable to lay in a stock 
for themselves. This is one among a 
thousand greater instances of the price 
which the people pay for the wars they 
have been so fond of. Some directions 
for making Mead will be found in the 
Treatise on Wine-making, to which 
subject it more immediately belongs. 

The midland counties of England 
have generally been famed for their 
malt liquors. That of Burton has al- 
ready been particularly described; but 
those of Nottingham and Birmingham 
also find their way into the London 
market : indeed, any sort of country ale 
is preferred to what is usually manu- 
factured, under that name, in the metro- 
polis. Private brewing, too, is more 
general in the district above-mentioned, 
than in other quarters of the island ; and 
the following description of the practice 
of a private family of our acquaintance 
in Worcestershire may be considered 
as generally prevalent in that and the 
neighbouring counties. It is obviously 
capable of improvement in regard to 
the saving of expense ; but, in quality, 
the ale is by no means objectionable. 

1. For Good Commoin- Ale. 
The strength of this ale was fixed to 
twelve gallons for every bushel of malt, 
and two bushels was the quantity usually 
brewed at a time ; for which one and 
a half to two pounds of hops were al- 
lowed, according to their quality and 
the season. The Worcester hops were 
preferred as being milder in flavour than 
the Sussex or Kent. The malt was 
ground, rather coarsely, in which case 
it was supposed to drain better than 
when too fine; and the drainage was 
made to pass through a small cap-like 
wicker basket, called a Betwel, which 
was placed on the bottom of the tun so 
as to cover the entrance to the draining 
cock, or spiggot, as the case might be. 

When every thing was prepared, and 
the liquor had begun to boil, the furnace 
door of the copper was thrown open, 
and the boiling having just ceased, as 
much of the hot hquor was run into the 
mash-tun as covered the bottom to the 
depth of an inch, or an inch and a half. 
About half a bushel of the malt was 
then put in, and stirred intimately with 
the liquor, until it was completely wetted. 
Another quantity of the hot water, suf- 
ficient to wet a second half bushel of the- 



malt, was then let on ; and this remainder 
of the first bushel was put into the tun, 
and the whole stirred together until 
every particle of the malt was supposed 
to be wet. The same process was carried 
on, by half a bushel at a time, mixed 
with continually added liquor, until the 
whole mash became completely soaked. 
A gallon of the liquor (as muchas might 
have been contained within the draining 
basket or betwel) was then drawn off 
from the bottom of the tun, and thrown 
upon the top of the goods, which, after 
being covered with a sprinkling of dry 
malt, and marked with a cross, drawn 
over the surface with the end of the 
mashing oar, were allowed to rest, for 
the purpose of infusion. 

When the mash had stood three hours, 
it was let off slowly into a tub (or under- 
back) upon the hops, which had been 
previously steeped in hot water ; and, 
after the draining was completed, an 
additional quantity of liquor (about the 
same heat as before) w^as laded regu- 
larly over the goods until the whole were 
as wet as at the first mash. This second 
infusion was allowed to stand an hour, 
when it was also run off, and trans- 
ferred, along with the first worts and 
hops, into the copper for the purpose of 
being boiled. The quantity of worts re- 
quired to produce the twenty-four gal- 
lons of ale (which, to allow for waste in 
boiling, might be about thirty gallons), 
was made up by sprinkling hot water 
over the goods, while the mash- tun was 
allowed to continue slowly draining. 

When the worts had boiled in the 
copper for an hour, they were cast into 
wide tubs for the purpose of coohng. 
These being of different sizes, cooled 
unequally ; but care was always taken 
not to mix hot worts with cold. A few 
quarts of the worts, when about milk 
warm, were stirred up with a quart of 
good fresh yeast, in the bottom of the 
fermenting tun, at which heat they rose 
into immediate action ; and the remain- 
ing worts (except a small part) were 
added as soon as they were considered 
to be sufficiently cool. 

When the head of the tun got very 
strong, and before it had begun to sink, 
the ale was cleansed ; but previously to 
this being done, the bottom of each cask 
was covered about an inch deep, with 
the reserved worts above-mentioned ; — 
we say the bottom, because the casks 
were placed upright, and discharged 
their superfluous yeast down the sides, 
from a wide tap-hole in the upper end. 

In two or three days the fermentation 
generally subsided, so as to allow them 
to be loosely bunged ; and in about a 
week more, after inserting a handful of 
half boiled hops in each cask, and filling 
it up, it was bunged up close, having a 
vent-hole and peg to loosen if necessary. 
In four months the ale was judged ready 
for tapping, and was drunk from the 
cask without bottling. This sort of ale 
is brewed, of course, at such times, and 
in such quantities, as to ensure a regular 
succession of four or five months old, 
keeping in view that the spring and 
autumn are the best seasons. 

2. For Strong Ale. 

The quality of the strong ale is calculated 
from the length that is drawn from the 
bushel. Some gentlemen make it a rule 
that a gallon of malt shall produce a 
gallon of ale ; while others draw only five 
or six gallons from the bushel. The 
brewing of which we have now to speak 
consisted of twelve bushels, and from 
this about seventy gallons of strong ale 
were made. For this purpose about 
eighty gallons of wort were drawn from 
the goods, in the same manner as in the 
common ale. The hops (twelve pounds) 
were boiled with the worts an hour, or 
an hour and a quarter ; and about the 
middle of that period a lump of salt 
(perhaps a pound) was thrown into the 
copper. Salt is also put, by some, in 
the common ale, in the same manner. 

During this time, as much liquor was 
infusing with the goods as produced, 
when boiled and fermented, eighteen 
gallons of very good table beer. The 
hops of the strong ale were more than 
sufficient for the small, and part was 
usually kept out. 

The fermentation was begun and con- 
ducted in the same way as in the last 
article, only with a larger portion of 
yeast, on account of the greater strength 
of the worts. The time in the ferment- 
ing tun was longer, the cleansing being 
guided by the appearance of the head^ 
as it began to thicken. In cleansing, 
there was no reserved wort used, as m 
the preceding brewing. 

In about three weeks after cleansing, 
the ale was racked into other casks; 
and a quart of ground malt tied in a 
clean linen bag was put into each. A 
handful of half boiled hops was also put 
in, and the bung made firm. Some 
persons put horse beans, either bruised 
or whole, in place of the malt, and also 
a few egg shells and a pound of loaf 



sugar to a barrel, with the view of better 

This ale was kept six months in the 
cask before it was tapped. It was then 
bottled, and ran no further risk of acidity, 
although kept for years. October or 
November is accounted the best season 
for brewing, because the six winter 
months are understood to be most 
favourable to the keeping of ale that is 
newly brewed. When it has passed 
those months, it runs less risk of acidity 
during the succeeding summer, in the 
case of its continuing in the casks. 

On reviewing the preceding directions, 
it will be observed that much is left to 
the experience of the brewer, which, 
from the want of instruments, cannot be 
communicated to the reader. The heat 
of the mashing liquor was probably 
above 190°, but this is left to conjec- 
ture. It must have varied with the heat 
of the atmosphere, but in the worst di- 
rection ; for, in cold weather, the liquor 
would be at a lower when it ought to 
be at a higher temperature. The heat 
of the fermentation must have been 
liable to the same accidents. The pro- 
per period for cleansing, too, must have 
been very difficult to ascertain, there 
being no mode of discovering the at- 
tenuation ; and in consequence, under 
such management, the strong ale might 
be ready for bottling two or three months 
sooner, or it might be protracted two or 
three months later than the period in- 

The mode of mashing (akin to the 
Scotch sparging system) is capable of 
drawing out the whole strength of the 
malt, were it not for two prominent 
errors : one of which is the consequence 
of the other. The want of a false bot- 
tom makes coarse grinding necessary to 
enable the worts to work their way to 
the basket. Without either fine grind- 
ing, or crushing, the malt cannot be suf- 
ficiently searched ; and, unless the sparges 
are allowed to descend in horizontal 
strata, we leave one side of the mash- 
tun to be less acted upon than the other. 
We are well convinced that, in the fore- 
mentioned examples, and especially in 
the second, one- third of the extractible 
saccharum of the malt was left in the 

In the details of which we now speak, 
the reader's attention was particularly 
directed to the cro5.s that was dravi'n on 
the surface of the goods. This sign of 
the cross, in those counties, is univer- 
sal, although no one knows why. The 

Protestants consider it as a remnant of 
Popish superstition. There is, how- 
ever, no superstition in the case. It is 
a useful proof of the perfection of the 
process. After the mashing is finished, 
and the goods strewed over with dry 
malt, the cross can only be fairly drawn 
when the whole of the goods are com- 
pletely broken. If any knots or lumps 
remain, being lighter than the rest, they 
rise to the surface ; and meeting the 
rod by which the cross is drawn, they 
will break the continuity of the line. A 
similar practice is observed by the malt- 
sters in Scotland, and perhaps in other 
places. After a floor has been turned, 
the maltman makes a cross on a corner 
of the surface with the end of a shovel, 
the appearance of which shows whether 
the grains of the malt be well separated, 
or clotted together. Formerly, every 
craft had its mysteries, which were hid 
from the uninitiated, for whom some 
wonderful tale was invented that might 
satisfy their curiosity without adding to 
their information. Another of those 
mystical symbols will be seen in the 
following instructions, which were sent 
to a lady by an eminent Scotch brewer : 

" Leith, nth November, 1793. 

"Dear Madam, 

" * * * I have sent you 18 lbs. 
of hops. I generally put in 7 lbs. to the 
boll* of my best ale, but I think 6 lbs. 
of these hops should do ; and, as good 
store (yeast) is essentially necessary to 
the making of strong ale, I have sent 
you up as much in a small cask as will 
answer your brewing, the produce of 
my double ale. 

«****♦ J t^\^Q\] iisg WiQ free- 
dom of mentioning a few directions, at 
least, that I follow :— I, in the first 
place, allow the liquor, or water, in the 
copper, to come to a boil for ten mi- 
nutes or so. I then run it off into the 
mash-tun, and cool it to 190 degrees by 
the thermometer : or, if you have not 
one, you may stir it for eight or ten 
minutes, which brings it near about it. 
I then put in the malt, and stir it well 
till all is wet. I then throw a little dry 
malt, which is left on purpose, on the 
top of the mash, with a handful of salt, 
to keep the witches from it, and then 
cover it up. I allow it then to stand 
three hours, and then let go the cock of 
the mash-tun, and run off the wort 
slowly, to keep it fine, into the wort- 

* About 9 lb. per quarter. 



stane*. When the frst is run off, I 
sparse it with liquor at ISO cley;rees; 
allowing the cock to run all the time 
till I have as much as I want of quan- 
tity. I then pump the w^orts into the 
copper, (having put more liquor on the 
goods for the following, or small beer, 
at 1 GO or 165°) and allow them to boil 
for an hour. Having mashed the hops 
with liquor at the time of sparging the 
malt, they are put in when putting the 
worts into the copper. After they are 
boiled the above-mentioned time, I throw 
them (the worts) into the coolers, and 
allow them to stand till cool. 1 then 
let them into the tun, giving them some 
store ; and, after they are chipped\, I 
add more store by degrees ; and, mixing 
them frequently with a scoop, or cudyj, 
I let them stand still till the fermentation 
is very strong ; perhaps three days. I 
then tun (cleanse) them into casks, fill- 
ing up twice, or thrice, a day till pro- 
pel ly^wrought. * * * 
" I remain, with esteem, &c. 

" W. G." 

Mr. G.'s directions, though less mi- 
nute than those of our Worcestershire 
friend, show a little moie of science, by 
the introduction of the thermometer. 
It is surprising, however, considering 
the comparatively recent period at which 
he wrote, and his fame as a brewer 
(for he was the first of his day), that 
he makes no mention of the saccharo- 
meter, in default of which, or something 
equivalent, no brevv'ing, whether great 
or small, can be conducted with advan- 
tage. Without it, good ale may be made, 
but the expense, in family brewings, is 
not calculated : and the proverb is for- 

* A stone imderback. 
-f Creamed on the surface, 

X A Cudij, or Cuddy, is a small shallow pail, 
'Kaviiig one of its staves lengthened and shaped so as 
to form a handle. 

gotten, that " what is the private gentle- 
man's boast would be the public brew- 
ers ruin." Further, what with some 
is reckoned a matter of more conse- 
quence, the quality is always uncertain. 
The malt, it may be, contains a less 
quantity of fermentable matter, or it 
does not give out the extract at the 
heat usually employed. In either case, 
the same length is drawn ; and the dis- 
covery^is made, a year or two afterwards, 
in consequence of the obvious weak- 
ness, or degeneracy, of the ale. Thera 
was a time when instruments were un- 
known in the brewery; but there was 
also a time when a jug, of indefinite 
dimensions, was taken as a measure ; 
and a stone was selected, by guess-work, 
from a field, as a representative of 
weight. Those days, however, are 
gone by ; and, with the degree of know- 
ledge which we now possess, the expec- 
tation of being able to brew good malt 
liquor, without knowing the strength of 
the worts, seems almost as absurd as to 
attempt the process, without either weigh- 
ing the hops or measuring the malt. 

Additional information on this sub- 
ject will be found in'the pamphlet which 
accompanies " The Brewer s Saccharo- 
meter,"^ an instrument made and ad- 
justed under the direction of the writer 
of this treatise. 

While closing the present treatise, we 
are well aware that we have left it im- 
perfect. This is partly owing to the 
narrowness of the limits that have been 
assigned to it, w^hich has obliged us to 
abridge many of the illustrations. The 
treatises on Wine-making, and the 
Manufacture of Cyder and Perry (which 
are, in fact, continuations of Brewi?ig) 
will afford opportunities of remedving, 
in a great measure, these 'unavoidable 


Page 16, col. 2, line 4 from the bottom, for qualities rjad quantities. 
Page 32, note, dele last and read 182U. 


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Call Number: 


Booth, D« 
Art of Brewing, 






3 1175 00178 7699 

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